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Full text of "The country dyer's assistant"



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STCRLING 
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CLA1UC 
ART INSTITUTE 
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T H X 



COUNTRY DYER'* 



ASSISTANT. 



>>: > ex xx>*xxy<xxxxx 

£y ASA ELLIS, Jun. 



Brookfield, (Massachusetts :) 
PRINfED by E. MERRIAM (3 Co. 

For the Aut*ioRi 



DisTRiCTor Massachusetts District, to wn, 



B 



E it remembered, That on the thirteenth 

day of November, in the twenty-third year of the In- 
dependence of the United Sutej of America, ASA 
ELLIS, j un. of the faid diftrift, hath depofited in 
this Office, the title of a Book, the right whereof he 
claims as Author, in the words following, to wit, 
"The COUNTRY DYER's ASSISTANT, by A- 
SA ELLIS, juk." 

In conformity to the A& of the Congrefs of the 
United States, entitled " An Aft for the Encourage* 
ment of Learning, by fecuring the Copies of Maps, 
Charts, arid Books, to the Authors and Proprietors 
ei Lich Copies^ during the time therein mentioned, M 
N. GOOD ALE, Clerk of the Di/lritl 

of Maflachu/etts Dipicl, 
A true Copy of Record. 1 

Atte/l, N.'Goodale, Chrk. £ 



1 • 



INTRODUCTION. 



IN (uch a country as America, 
efpecially the northern ftates, which abound 
in Sheep, the art of dying wool is of high 
importance. Were the art fuitably culti- 
vated, we fhould not only, by induftry, fat- 
isfy our curiofity upon that raw material ; 
but prevent an extenGve and needlefs impor- 
tation ; and of confequence retain our mon- 
ey in our own country. The art of dying 
i3 an ufeful branch of chjmiftry. Its influ- 
ence on the fale of all (luffs ufed for furniture, 
orapparre 1 , has been felt by almoft all Eu- 
rope, who have been enriched by it, efpe- 
cially England. 

But few people, in America, eftimate the 
value of manufactured woollens, oft heir own 
country. We too generally reforr, for our 
cloths, to the manufa&uries of Europe. 

With regard to our own manufafture of 
cloth, worsen and children commonly dic- 

A2 



t£ INTRODUCTION. 

tate the colours ta be impred upon therm* 
But they frequently make an injudicious 
choice ; the colour which they di&ate fades ; 
the coat is fpoiled* is thrown afide, or given 
to Jack the garden boy,, and poor little 
Tommy mud have a nevv one- 
True colours retain the complexion that is 
tmpreft on goods^. Falfe ones, on wearing 
and being expofcd.'Q the fan and air, lofe 
all their original tir«ts ;, and of confequence 
the goods, are fo much injured, as to render 
them unfailable* 

The government of France were early 
fenlible of this,, and formed ipecial regula- 
tions to improve the art of dying- They 
employed their mod able chymids to infpe6i: 
the, dyers,, and to mark a diflinftion between; 
the true and the falfe dyes.. Thofe who pro- 
felled the art were of confequence:, diftin-. 
guifhed by the epithets of thetrueand of the 
falfe dyers^ The former wem encouraged 'y, 
the latter woxc: laid: under particular re-* 
draints.. The defign of government,, in thefe: 
s^tilztions^was to irr prove the arc and esu- 



rNTRODUCTIOm y2 

rich their nation^ By this wife interferance 
of authority, France realized both objects- 

Too many dyers of this country, have pre- 
cluded themfelves from improvement. Con- 
fining themfelves to incorrect Recipes, thejr 
have negle£ted experiments, and other gen- 
eral means of information. 

A circumftantial detail of experiments,, 
with their various refult$ y is, in this fmall vol- N 
urne, prefentedto the country dyers* In the 
following work, I have endeavored to be- 
plain and intelligible to ail who can clean the 
copper, or turn the reeL 

Not onlv thofe who profefs the art, but 
private families may embrace the advantages 
of the following inftru£iions, and colour their 
own yam of woollen, worfted and thread, and A 
fmall pieces of fiik, as beautifully, as the dy- 
ers. This will fave families much expenfe,, 
and dyers, in general, do notwifti to be bur-, 
defied, with fuch fmall commands. 

Tuis publication, prefented to the coun- 
try dyers, is the refult of twenty years prac- 
tice, clofe ftudy, fair trials,, unwearied pair, 
and expenfe*. 



viii INTRODUCTION. 

The author flatters himfelf that he fhall 
avoid the imputation of vanity, while he en- 
tertains a confidence that the following in- 
ftruftions, will be of public utility, and of 
fervice to many of his brethren in the art of 
dying, 

Brookfisldy Dee. a 7 98. 



>*k x*<x»«*x >*xx : 



T M £ 



COUNTRY DYER's 

gt-.3'''9T'8'-T'"Jt'2tiT. 



i i ■■I713BE38— — w 



CHAP. I. 

0/ J^/s tf^ Utenftls employed in dying. 

a OURdye-houfefliouldbefiJ^ 
teen or twenty feet fquare; well furnifhed 
with light and placed near a ftrcam; water 
being effentially neceffary for preparing your 
cloth?, and for rinfirg them when dyed. 
The floor fhould be made of leached afhes, 
as it will foon become hard and render you 
more ecure from fire. 

Your copper, or copper* fhould be fitu- 
ated near the centre of the houfe ; and the 
blue vat, about fix feet from the copper, m 
which you intend to heat the blue die. 



ip THE COUNTRY DYER's 

The fize of your blue vat will be in pro? 
portion to the buficefs you expe£t. The 
common fize and diaijpofions a*e as follow j 
viz it jfhouid be five feet deep, three f:e di- 
ameter at the top, and twenty inches at the 
bettonr, Pla^e yr-ur vat tvo in the 

parthj for the fake of convcniency $ oblerve 
thai: its cover fit clofe. 

The ftavcs of your vat fhould be one inch 
and and a half thick, bound with iron hoops. 
Wooden ones will do, but you will find them 
more fcxpenfife than iron, they will foon 
fail, and perhaps the vat will Jgrlng a leak 
a;d youloofe your dye before it is perceived. 

It is necciTary to have a hoop, with a net 
ftretched over it, that will fink within your 
vat. This hoop fhould be fufpenoed about 
tw \ fret from the bottom of the va', by four 
fmali cords fattened at the top of the vat. 
The defign is to keep your cloth, v>hi!e col- 
ouring, from the grounds, or fedament, which 

lies at the bottom. 

A <i er's rake is alfo neceffby. It is made 

in thefhape of a churn-dafh,wiih the excep- 
tion only that it fhould be a fcmicircle, or 



ASSISTANT, u 

naif round. The foot piece fhould be about 
twelve inches diameter, with three or four 
holes through \t i and a fiiff handle ififettedj 
five feet Ion;:. 

Further, a (lick fhould be put acrofs your 
v*r, about or.c inch below the furface of the 
dye, in order to draw the clcth over, when 
colouring 5 arid you will reed two flicks a- 
bout a foot long with hooks at one end, to 
hall your cloth, when in the dye ; for it 
will be inconvenient to hall it with your 
hands. Tenter hooks will anfwer the purpofe. 

Thefe dire&ions, for the vat, are the beft 
I know ; as it was remarked, you can con- 
form its dimenfions, to the bufinefs, for 
which you \vi(h to employ it. 

A copper, or caldron is neccflary for all 
dyers. The bufinefs cannot be carried on 
without one or more of them. Your largeft' 
copper fhould contain fixty, or feventy gaU 
Ions. It lhould be 05t in a brick furnace; 
becaufe that will heat your copper fooncr. 
The top of the furnace, which enclofes the 
copper ought to be fix inches thick, fo that 



3t THE COUNTRY DYER's 

you may plank the brick work, and nail the 
lip of the copper to the plank and plaifter of 
the furnace. Then your copper, wich care, 
can be kept clean, which is abfolutely necef- 
fary. 

An iron caldron is very convenient, in a 
dye-houfe*to boil Logwood and other dye- 
ftuffs ; there are many ufes, in which it will 
be employed; the benefit of one would 
foon pay you for puchafing it. A fmall 
kettle will anfwer, but it is inconvenient. 

A reel, or winch is neceffary; it is made 
of a piece of timber two inches fquare and 
long enough to crofs the copper, with a 
crank at one end, and four flats, or pofts, that 
are incerted in the lhaft before mentioned. 
The reel, thus formed, Ihould be about a 
yard in circumference. On this, the cloth, 
in the copper is to be turned, while colour- 
ing, topreferve it from fpottiag. 
. Many dyers place one end of a board on 
the edgetrfthe copper to receive the cloth 
in order for cooling ; bur it is much better to 
have a cooling board, about eight feet long 



ASSISTANT. ij 

and one foot wide placed at a (mall diftarace 
from the copper about waift high. Another 
about the fize of a prefs-board you may 
reft on the top of the copper to receive the 
cloth from the reel; then take the board with 
the cloth and place it under the cooling- 
board, where you will be careful to have 
frocks to reft vour cloth on, in order to cool 
it, by folding it upon your cooling board* 

Thofe, who intend to dye indigo blue, 
muft have an iron kettle, that will hold a 
pailful, in order to grind indigo ; and an 
iron ball, of twelve pounds weight; one of 
eighteen pounds is better. 

Dyers flhould be furnifhcd with fpare tubs 
and pails ; alfo with ftfeelyards, or fcales that 
are true ; in order to weigh dye-ftuffV, which 
ought never to be ufed without ftrift atten- 
tion to their weight. There are but few ex- 
ceptions to this rule. 



THE COUNTRY DYER^ 

C'H A P. II. 
Remarks en Dy.efluffs. 

v^/F Indigo there are various * 
quaHiries. Many dyers often fail in their 
judgment of the Indigo, they purchafe. 
The beft is imported from the Spanifh do- 
minions. It is generally fine and foftj it 
will fwim on the furfaee of water; its col- 
our is a beautiful purple ; it is called float, 
or floa:on. But this Indigo comes to us 
charged at fo high a price, that little ufe is 
rnade of it, except in Saxon greens. Fiench 
Indigo is in junks, "about an inch fquare. It 
is not (o foft and fine as the Spanifh ; when 
br jken, if it djfeovers a fine purple, the qual- 
ity is good ; it may be ufedin Saxon green. 
Carolina Indigo will anfwer for almoft all 
colours obtained from indigo. I have ob- 
tained as good Saxon green, from this, as 
from any: other kind. If this Indigo will 
worn in the oil of vitriol and produce good 



ASSISTANT, -15 

Saxon greens; it-will work any way, in dy- 
ing clcths, and may be pronounced compar- 
atively good. Th's -kind of Indigo is 
brought from Carolina in junks about two 
inches fqware. You may find its quality* 
by breaking a jir k, or by cutting or fcrap- 
ing the ed^e of it with a knife. It fhould 
break eafily, and in all thofe experiments 
it fhouid give the colour of a bright, fhifi- 
ing copperas purple, and when broken, ap- 
pears fome th : ng mouldy, as if the air hid 
palled through it. That which puts on 
a dirty, fad, or dull colcu r , is fit for no u r e 
whatever. Thlt, which breaks hard and 
flinty, full of fmall, round, white fpecks, will 
arfwer no purpofe in dying, not even in* 
kjqpitiu urine dye. 

Of Cochineal. 

Cochineal is an in ;..: : t\ i.i S3 nh 

America. It is ihipped to Spain ; from 
Spain to England ; whence we obtain it at 
a high price, on the account of accumulated 
and heavy duties. It is a ftrong and good 
dyeftuff, or drug, ard will return handfome 



.i6 THE COUNTRY DYER'* 

profits to the dyer when ufed in fcarlet?, 
pinks and crimfons. That which is good 
will appear plump and look as though alight 
fprinkling of flour had been call on it. If 
you preferve it dry, it may be kept any 
length of time without damage. There is 
a kind of Cochineal, which is wild and un- 
cultivated. It is very fmall and fhrivelled. 
However ycu may obtain a good colour from 
its but it will require three times the weight 
of this, to anfwer the purpofe. 

Some Cochineal is damaged by fait wa- 
' ter. This appears of a dirty crimfon caft and 
is of no ufe whatever. 

Of Qtm&cod. 

Camwood is, with propriety, ranked a- 
mong the beft of ■ dyeltuffs. Its colour is 
permanent ; it will refift the influence of 
the fait* of the air and almoft ail acids. But 
a few years fince, it was firfl: brought to this 
country. It comes in the wood from fix 
inches to a foot through; it fplits freely; 
when good is heavy, and on opening it, the 
firfl appearance is a bright, rcdifh orange; 



ASSISTANT. if 

but, ifl a few mir.utes being expc fed to the 
aii-j it turns to a red i Si brouro colour; its 
fmell is pungent. Of late is has been im- 
ported in cafks, ground fine like flour. This 
is much more convenient fcr the dyer ; for 
that which comes in the (lick, muft be 
chipped veiy fine, and being very clofe 
wood, it requires much boiling. 

That v» hich is ground, if good, will ap- 
pear of a yellowi(h red j if you wave it, a hot 
dud will rife which irritates the nofe and t! 
glands of your thrca\ 

That which is mi'd and appears of a dark- 
ifh red has been leached and wi 1 produce no* 
good colour. 

Of Logwood. 

Logwood is much uftd, by dyers, both 
in Europe and America. Its low piicc and 
the great variety of (hades ic produces, is one 
reafon why fomuch Logwood is ufed. But 
however various and beautiful the ffi ;C 

firft gi^es, the greater p*rt of them fcon fader-. , 
and perifh. 

B2 



it THE COUNTRY DYEK's 

The principal ufe of Logwood is in jet 
blacks, raven blacks or crow colour ; alfo navy 
blues cannot beconvenietnly made without it. 

Logwood is imported in (licks of various 
dimenfions; if good will emit an agreeable 
flavour and be fweet to the tafte. 

Of Barwood. 

Barwood is a dyeftuff not much ufed in 
America. Some, however have miftaken it 
for Camwood, not having fufficient infor- 
mation to diftinguifh the one from the other ; 
being ignorant of its ufe, they have been dif- 
appointed in their colour. 

Barwood will produce chocolates and 
darkilh browns, fimi'ar to thofe impreffed 
by Hemlock bark. Barwood commonly 
comes in clefts. It is of a redilh brown j 
fplits freely one way of the grain ; the other 
hard and rough. 

Of Greenwood. 

Greenwood comes in cafks ground. It is 
but lately Greenwood was firft imported 
to this country. It is of a greeoifh yeljow i 



ASSISTANT. j 9 

it anfwcrs well, in all olives and fandy drabs. 
However Sumach will produce the fame, and 
where one cannot be obtairjpd, the other will 
anfwer. 

Of Brazil or Redwood 

Redwood affords, a fine colour, whether 
ufed alone, united with Logwood, or with 
various other ingredients. It will produce 
a variety of colours, by mixing it with Log- 
wood; fuch as the violet, lelcch and many 
others of that caft. Without Logwood it 
gives you the pink, claret &c. However, a 
fmall quantity of Nutgals would be of fervice 
in any of the dyes made of Redwood; pro- 
vided you wilh to make them darker. But 
the colour which Redwood produces is falfe 
and generally fades out. However, ifycu 
will take the trouble of nine days operation, 
you may obtain a very permanent colour. 

Redwood comes in fmall flicks; if good 
looks bright bearing a little on a yellowifli 
red; it fmells agreeably and chips freely. 
That which has been injured by fea-water, 



THE COUNTRY DYER's 

or the weather, affords a, dull red chip, and' 
is cohefive and clingy. 

Of Fvjlick. 

Fuftick is much tfed in this country. 
The colour it naturally produces is an orange 
yellow. It is often employed in greens, ol- 
ives and drabs 3 if good, it ar.fwers a vaU 
uable pvrpofe. It lliould appear when fplit 
of a bright yellow, tinged with the orange 
colour* The wood is clofe and hard i gcner-- 
ally hard to fplit and fuU of fpUftters. The 
root and that part of the wood which is 
lenoty is the beft. It comes to us in large 
logs from fix inches to one foot and a half 
through ; if it be rotten, or otherwise inju-. 
ried it w ill not anfuer weil for fxon greens ; 
however, it maybe employed jn dark drab?.. 

O/Turmerecbv . 

Turmerech/is a roof, which dyes the fined", 
yellow. Without it, neither a good yellow,, 
green nor ftraw colour can be impreft upon 
fiiks. It is .ufed with A'l-m. and a Jitde, 
Tartar, The different {hades it produces on 



ASSISTANT, ki 

filk, when mixed with other dye-Huffs, are 
too numerous to be defcribed in this fmall 
volume. Turmerech is a fmall root, about 
two inches long, as big as the fmall finger. 

If it be good, when broken, it will prefent 
you a dark yellow ; a ftrong flavour and it 
is very bitter to the tafte. 

Of Sumach. 

Sumach is a crooked ftirub, with fpread- 
branches; it rifes about ten feet high 
and grows fpontaneoufly in many parts of 
this country. It is an excellent dye-wood, 
for drabs and fand colours ; its imprefl 
are permanent. It would be well if i: were 
more employed by cur country dyers, than 
it is at prefent. I:s berries, when ripe are of 
a dark red; they are acid to the tafte, and 
may be employed in almoft any dark colour. 

Sumach fhould be collefted when it is 
full of fap. Ik careful that the fap be tak- 
en off with a drawing-knife before you uft 
it; for there is a gluttonous balfam in the 
fap, which will adhere to cloth, and of c 
fcquence it will be fpotteJ. 



• 



as THE COUNTRY DYER's 



• The heart and piths are the only parts to 
be ufed, as it refpecis the wood. It pre- 
sents you with the colour of a faint orange. 
. It will be good for years after ic is cur, if the 
fap be taken off and the flicks are k°pt dry. 

Of Ncgrogtr. 

Negroger is brought to us in (licks about 
-fix inches through. The Hicks have a num- 
ber of concaves in them, which have the ap- 
pearance of art. This woodTpHts freely; 
dilcovers a redifh orange colour, fomething 
like Cam* cod ; the fmeil is not fliarp and 
poignant: Its colour is a bright cinnamon. 
.But it loon fades, and it will be of lrtle ufe 
to djers, unkfs fonne rreched can be found 
to fix and retain the colour. 

Of Madder. 

I I . dder is a root of excellent quality. If 
it be good and fuitably errployed, it will 
give a permanent colour. 

Of Madder there are two kinds the one 
called grape, the other brown. The grape 
Madder, is the more beautiful and better to 



ASSISTANT. 

colour red; the brown v, ill anfwcr in deep 
blues. Tris comes cheaper than the grape. 
The grape Midder pofll-ffes a yellcKvifh red 
cad, to the fmcll pungent ; to the t~fte ftveet. 
Th- brown is much darker and not fo high 
flavo ;red. 

Madder fhould be kept clofe ; if it be ex- 
pofed nthe air, it will not produce fo bright 

■r o ^ 

nor To much colour. 

Of Barks, in general. 

Butternut is an excellent bark for dyers'; 
nP colour is durable; it is bfcful in many 
of the browns and a!fo in black. 
_ The ba.k fhou'd be ufed while it is green, 
;«f dry it will not aofwer a good purpofe. Ic 
wlftbe'the better way for d -rs to flock 
thetnfelver, in the rail with fo much of the 
wood, ,vich the baton, as thefexpeft to 
ree-j for the feafcnv It fhou;d be kept un- 
der cover, and tne bark feared off as they 
ufe it. '. 

Of Hemlock hark. 
Hemlock is a very gC o 1 bark for co 1 



cur- 



M$ The 10 fs foould be taken cfF and 



24 THE COUNTRY DYER'* 

whether green or diy it is equally good, in 
browns, its colour is of a redifh caft. 

Of Yellow Oak bark. 

This bark produces a ftrong colour and 
is good in olive browns and blacks. Wheth- 
er it be green or dry, it is equally good. It 
will not anfwer in Saxon greens. Irs colour 
is of a much duller cafl than Fuftick or 
Turmera:h. 

Walnut baik or Hkhory is fomethinglike 
yellow oak; its colour is rather brighter; 
both are durable, and either of them will an- 
fwer the fame purpofe. 

Of White Oak lark. 

This bark is good in fand colours and 
efrabs. The colour is permanent. • A fmall 
quantity of this bark is fufficient for your 
purpofe. Take off all the top and rcugh 
parts of the bark \ otherwife it will adhere 
to and injure your cloth. 

Of Alder bark. 

This bark is good and its impreflions dur- 
able, it is ufeful in almoft all dark colours ; 



ASSISTANT. 25 

it aflifts in filling up, and darkening the 
JOhades and leaves the colour bright and clear. 

White maple bark produces a flate colour, 
which is beautiful j but it foon fades out. 
It mud be ranked among the falfe dyes 

White birch bark produces much the fame 
colour, only it is lighter, and like the maple 
will foon fade. 

Yellow birch, white afh and faffafras bark* 
are good, in iight browns, or afh colours ; if 
they be properly ufed, the colours will be 
clear and beautiful, and they will leave the 
cloth fofr ar.d pliable. 

Thefe barks are profitable to country dy- 
ers wh-n they have not a fupply of Nutgals. 



CHAP. HI. 

Recipe for the blue dye, or Indigo Vat. 

jlxS before obfefved, the fizeof 
your vatwil hei;j proportion to the buff- 
nefs, b which you would employ it. lh 

C 



28 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

order to fet, or raife a new dye, put one pound 
and an half ot Indigo into an iron kettle, 
which will contain two or three gallons I 
then fill your kettle with river, or pond wa- 
ter, wafh the Indigo and pour off the water $ 
then take a peftle and beat the Indigo fo 
fmall that a cannon ball will run upon it. 
Add a point of urine to the Indigo thus pre* 
pared for grinding; then place the kettle on 
your knees and let the ball run on the Indi- 
go till it be ground to a pafte ; obferve occa* 
fiondly to fcrape down with a knife, the In- 
digo, which adheres to the fzdesof the kettle, 
left you fnould wafte it. 

If your Indigo be too dry add a little 
more urine. It Ihould be fufficiently moid 
that the 'ball may roll freely ; but not fo 
thin as to flop over. This procefs of grind- 
ing fhould be continued about half a day. 
The Indigo being thus prepared may be fit 
ifide for the prefent. Your vat is, in the 
ijext place, to be put in order. Firft, it 
fhould be about half full ©f boiling water *, 
then put in. a pound and an half of good pot* 
ajfe defolved in hot wattrj to this add twelve 



ASSISTANT. $7 

^uam of wheat bran ; after lifting out all 
the flower or kernel, fprinkle it into the vat 
with the band znd ftir the dye with the rake. 
This done, add twelve ounces of good grape 
Madder, then with the rake, mix it well 
with your dye. In the next place, take the 
Indigo jou have ground, nearly fill the ket- 
tle with warm water ; keep the ball rolling^ 
while the kettle is filling, and let the ball 
run until the Indigo is well united with the 
water; then let ic ftand and fettle for two 
or three minutes, then pour the water that is 
on the Indigo, into the vat. Be careful that 
none of the fedament at the bottom of the 
kettle is turned off with the water ; this 
rnuft be ground again and more warm wa- 
ter added and poured off, in the manner 
juft defcribed, until the Indigo is nearly all 
defolved. 

Obferve, through ail this procefs, your 

vat mull be clofely covered, excepting the 
< 

time that is neceflary to introduce the engre- 
dients. 

When you have poured in all your Indigo, 
*vhich is the laft article, you will do well 



%$ THE COUNTRY I>YER J $: 

to ftir up the dye, with the rake ; then cov- 
er your vat, if pofliblc to exclude the circu- 
lation of the air. Let your vat, thus confin- 
ed, remain for eight or nine hours before it 
be opened. 

Half a pail-full of grounds from on o-d 

vat, that is in good order, might be u r eful as 

the firit article introduced into a new one. 

However, in fitting a new vat, the evening is 

the btfl time, having ail the materials, we 

have mentioned, introduced, by the hour of 

ten at night. Then your dye may reft till 

the morning ; when you fhould open the 

vat and plunge your rake from the top to 

the bottom of the dye. This fhould be done 

wich a&ivity and exertion. Bubbles will 

appear and b? repeating the plunges fix or 

feven times, if a thick blue froth rifes on 

the furface of the dye which is called the 

head, continuing to float, and further, if it 

put oi the appearance of a darkilh green ; 

the dye may be pronounced in a good (late 

and is ft. for colouring. Perhaps the procefs- 

of plunging mud be repeated two or three 

times i but remember every time, after you 



ASSISTANT. : 9 

h*ve plunged your rake in the dye, to cover 
your vat clofely, and to let it reft for an hour 
between thefe trials. If your dye becomes 
cool, it will not rife to a head, though it b« 
good. 

If the dye becomes cool it rnuft be heat 
ifgain. This will retard bufinefs and caufe 
trouble. If the dye when firft opened, in 
the morning, appear of a pale blue caft, in- 
flead of a dark green, an handful or two of 
Madder muft be fprinkled into the vat. 

The dye in the morning after it is fet. 
fiiould be fo warm that you cannot bear your 
hand in it longer than cne minute. If the 
dve appear of a pale indifferent colour, and 
a whitifh fcum rifes on the furface, it does 
not work and will not colour. In this cafe, 
the dye muft be heat, and a fmall portion 
of all its ingredients muft be added j alfo a 
handful of ftone lime fhould be put to warm 
water, and after fettling pour off the lime wai- 
ter, into the vat* 

Many, through want of better inftru&ion, 
vrill frequently look into the vat, to difcover 

C 2 



go THE COUNTPvY DYER's 

the ft ate of the dye. By thus expofing it to 
the air it cools, and they will never bring it 
to a head till they are taught better. 

Of all dyes, the blue is. the mod difficult 
and mud be attended with the greateft care. 
After the vat is fet and comes to a head, it 
may ftand fccure till employed for dying 
cloth. When the cloth is ready for colour- 
ing, the dye muft be heat. 

If you have fixty yards of flannel, that is, 
fo many yards of cloth after it has been 
fcoured, or one quarter fulled; two pounds 
of Indigo ground with a ball according to 
our former dire&ion muft be put into the 
vat, together with the proportionable addi- 
tions, of Potafh, Madder and wheat bran. 

The d/e Ihould be raifed within three 
inches of the top of the vat. 

Let the vat be hot at night when you leave 
it : To preferve the heat, enciofc the vat 
with a number of yards of cloth, that it may 
be fuffi:iently warm in the morning. At 
that time, when you open it plunge your 
rake in the dye, then cover it clofely ; reft 
ane hour then plunge again, repeat thefe op- 



ASSISTANT. 31 

erations two or three times. If the dye be 
in a good ftate and work well, there will be 
as many as ten or twelve quarts of froth or 
head, floating on the fu faceofthedye,whofe 
colour will appear of a beautiful dark blue; 
at the fame time, the body of the dye will 
give you a dark green. This is the proper 
ftate of the dye, for colouring ; or when the 
dye ought to be employed. 

The cloth fhould be cleanfed from all 
filth ; efpecially greafci forgreife will ovcr- 
fer the dye even in its be ( l ftate* Alfo eve- 
ry thing Ihould be prepared when the li- 
quor is in readlnefs. ■ So foon as the vat is 
opened, the head or froth mould be taken 
off and put into a v.effel that will contain it, 
next the net ftxould be let down, and the 
flick, or croft pl.ee/! about one inch below 
the furface of the d) e, for thepurpofe of hail- 
ing the clo:.h ever it. 

In the next place, the clo.h is to be taken 
from hot water, being well drained, ^vhich 
procefs mud be obftrved every time of dip- 
ping; hall the cloth into the vat, beginning 
atone end, keep it open, till you have drawn 



3 a THE COUNTRY DYER'* 

the whole piece into the dye. Perfevere i« 
hailing backwards and forwards from one 
end to the other for twenty minutes ; at the 
fame time it fhould be entirely in the dye. 
After this procefs you ihould begin at one 
end of the cloth, wring it up and take it on 
the folding board, and fold it over until it 
becomes blue and even $ for if this procefs be 
negleded your goods will befpotced. 

The cloth when firfi; taken out of the vat 
will exhibit a green {hade* but being ex- 
pofed to the air, vail become blue. 

Dip the cloth twice; then take out the 
crofs and nee ; put back the froth, or head, 
which was taken off. Stir your dye and 
plunge your rake in it : Then clofe ths 
vat for an hour. After that, proceed as be- 
fore, till the colour you wiih is obtained. 

The cloth mull now pafs a lecond milling. 
In the mean time, it will be well to prepart 
your vat to receive the cloth for the laft time. 
Put four or five pounds of woad, well pow- 
dered, into the** vat. This will fave Indigo 
and render the colour brighter* The woad 
fkould be put into the vat once, in two or 



A5SISTANT. 38 

three times of colouring, that is after the dye 
has done work, or when the dyer has done 
ufing ic for that time. 

After rh':s che dye fliould be kept clofe 
till it is re-heat for another coloiring. The 
dyer muft be careful in hot weather 10 heat 
the va: once in a month, or fix weeks to pre- 
ferve it. He mud alio take off the maggot* 
which »viil appear on the vat above the fur- 
fare of the dve. 

When the liquor becomes thLk and glut- 
tenous, .by uie, the dye mud be boiled the 
fcum taken off and the dye returned to the 
vat. At the fame time add a little Lime- 
water, toclarify the dye and fettle the grounds; 
for if the fedament rife the colour will no* 
be good. 

The dyer fhould never dip his goods till 
the grounds are well fettled. 

N. B. After colouring deep blues, the 
dyer may ufe his vat to colour various 
fhades of the fky blue, which will anfwer a 
better purpofe now when his dye is week , 



34 THE COUNTRY DYZr* 

Of the Indigo vat with urine* 

I 

* - Take one pound of Indigo teat ic fmall, 

then add to it one quart of fharp vinegar i 
being put into a fmall kettle, let them fim- 
mer over a (low fire, for twenty-four hours. 
As the vinegar evaporates add more. If th$ 
Indigo be not all defolved by this procefs, it 
muft be taked off and ground in a mortar, 
or with a cannon ball, in the fame liquor j 
occafionally adding, a little urine ; put in 
two ounces of Madder, mix it well with a 
flick. 

In the next place put this compofition, in* 
to a calk or vat of urine, which will contain 
fif:ecn .gallons, mix all well together. Stir 
your tub cr vat with a (lick, morning and 
evening, for eight or ten days, till the fur* 
face of the liquor, being agitated appear 
green producing a froth like the common 
blue vat. In this ftate your dye is fit for 
colouring. Theie vats are very convenient 
for the dying of wool and wpolenyarn. Fam- 
ilies may employ them at their pleafure, and 
snake them large or fmall, at the fame time 



ASSISTANT. S5 

attending to the Fuitable proportions of lndi* 
go and Madder, as above prescribed. 

When the dye becomes thick and glut- 
tenous, the whole fhould be boiled and the 
Lum taken off. 

Obferving thefe directions, your dye will 
laft many years. 

N. B. The vdt mud not be crowded ; two 
or three pounds of cloth or yarn is fufficiene 
for one colouring in a vat which will con- 
rrin a barrel. 



CHAP IV. 

For Navy Blue. 

1 HE Navy blue is a cheap 
and good colour ; its tint is beautiful and it 
leaves cloth foft and pliable. The Indigo 
blue is expensive, and its colour is obtained 
with much care and trouble. 

The former fceiag nearly as handfome, 
will of confequence be much more ufcd. 



36 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

To produce this colour, the copper ©? 
chaldron tiiuft be cleanfed and then filled 
with puie wattr. For twenty yards of fulled, 
or thick cloth put into the copper one pound 
and an half jf good green Copperas ; let the 
water boil and take^ off the fcum that rifes. 
This being done, your cloth wet in warm wa- 
ter is to be dipped in the dye for twenty min- 
utes; then cool it over the folding bo?.rd; 
after this, dip your cloth again, for two hours, 
then cool again and rinfe your cloth well in 
a running ftream. 

Now empty the copper and fill it again 

with clean water. At this time you rrtal 

have about fix pounds of good Logwood, well 

boiled, by itlelf. Bring the waer in your 

coppe r to boil; then add about one paJ-full 

of the Logwood dye to the copper, ftir it 

well tbgerJier, and then dip thecloih about 

half an hour; then cool, following thisproc- 

cfs til; the co'our defined is obtained* 

This is a very dark b'ue. Rinfe your cloth 

well, ici order ivr dreffixig* 

This colour will bear Vtell the heat of the 



ASSISTANT. 37 

prefs. Woolen yarn, for coverlets, Hocking*, 
&c\ may, in this way be coloured to advantage. 
Thin cloths are beautifully coloured in 
this way. 



CHAP. V. 

For Raven black , or Crow colour. 



T 



HE copper is to be filled, 
with clean water and brought to boil. For 
twenty yards of M'ed clorh, put in one 
pound and an hilf of good Roman vitriol. 
After it be well defolved, dip tic cloth for 
ha'f an hour; then cool it — after ih : s dip 
for two houis ; cool it a 5 ain and rnfc if. In 
the next place the copper muft be emptied 
and filed again with clean water. Put in 
half a bufh 1 of Sumach terries, if they can 
beohtaintdj a pa ; fu! b£ Aider bark and 
one jound of Madder B >1 th m well in 
the co per. Then dip your cloth huif an hour 
»— tUencOvl it. \fttr this add from tia;e to 
D 



g i THE COUNTRY DYER'* 

time tht liquor of Logwood, as in the navy 
blue till the colour is obtained. Now .rinft 
your cloth for dreffing. Be careful and not 
heat your prefs too hot ; if you do it will 
change the colour and you wiil find it diffi- 
cult, ever, to reftorc it, 

N. B. Cloth of this and almofl all colours 
mufl be kept open, while running on the reel. 

If this be negle&ed, the cloth will be ipot- 
ted and unfit for ufe. 

Many dyers let their cloth lie, in the cop- 
per, and then, cannot account why the col- 
our is uneven; but if they would attend to 
their dye they would avoid reproach, and 
their cuftomers would find no reafon of com- 
plaint, 

For Black. 

Many have confidered this, as a difficult 
polour to produce. Various methods are 
employed to obtain it. The following is the 
beft we have found. To colour twenty yards 
of thick cloth in the firfc place the copper 
muft be put in order, for laying the ground 
of the dye. After the water is put in, add 



ASSISTANT. jj 

about onebufhel of yellow oak bark ; if thafe 
cannot be obtained, employ an equal quan- 
tity of walnut bark. Boil it for four or five 
hours. Then take out the bark and add to 
the dye two pounds of good Copperas, Let 
it dcfolve, then dip the cloth for half an 
hour. Cool and repeat dipping three, or 
four times. The cloth will then appear of 
a heavy, or dead olive colour. Rinfe the 
cloth well in running water. Now empty 
the copper and fill it again, with clean water ; 
brirg it to boi', then add the liquor of Log- 
wood, as in the Navy blue, till the colour is 
obtained. Now rinfe the cloth for drefli^g. 
Gcod, bright, blacks are eafily obtained 
by this procefs. 

Old goods will eafily receive this colour 
though the dye be not fo ftrong as what we 
have prefcribed for rew cloth. 

Silk aifo will receive it eafily, but the dye 
muft be very ftrong. 

Any perfon may colour black by fmall 
quantities in this way without any great cx- 
aetnefs, as to the ingredients employed, and 
with little trouble* 



4® THE COUNTRY DYER's 

N. B. Navy blue, jet black and Ravea 
black, or Crow colours, and deep Indigo 
blues, fhouid be well fcoured in the mill in a 
weak fuds • otherwife they will crock and 
be troublcfome. 



C II A P. VI, 

Recipe for Hgbt and dark C : nnnmon % London 
brozi ns, and Britijh muds, 

x\lL the'e are obtained from 
the fame pool, or dye. 

For twtnty ya-ds of fulled cloth; when 
thr copper is fiUed, with jure wafer, and 
brought to boil, the d er muft put in three 
pounds of good Camwood; let it boil in the 
copper fi r :een minutes; then dip your cloth, 
for twohours. Keep it open and running over 
the reel ; then take up rhe cloth for cooling. 
Add, as before, three pounds of Camwood, 
and dip your cloth again according to the 



ASSISTANT. ±t 

fame prefcription. Then the light Cinna- 
mon is obtained and the cLth may be rinled 
for d reding. 

For the next procefc, add to your dye a 
fmall handful of Roman vitrei — two tabic 
fpoonfuh of oil of vitriol and one of good 
copperas. Let them fimmer r.ell in the ep- 
per. Take off the fcum, or fi!th that rifei 
on the dye; Oir it well ; then dip \ our cloth 
that is coloured light Cinnamon. 

Follow this for half an hour; turr.fr g the 
reel bride ! y, that the colour may he even; 
by this thed^.rk Cinnamon is obtained. 

Fi o.7i the dark Cinnamon, thedver will 
obtain a London brown, by adding Copperas 
to his dye and dipping his cloth, from time 
to tixe till it acqures the fta 1e he ehooYes. 

Bntiih muJ is ft lldarke-, being: almoil a 
black. After the London bro ■* n is obtained 
add the liquor of Logwood to the fame dvc, 
united with a little Copperas ; then dip your 
L'vdon brown, from time to time till you 
ob ain the ; adc defi ned. 

Tho(e varioar. co!outj, obrsined by con- 
forming to the foregoing | ixfcri r t:on are 
D 2 



~0 

42 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

ftrong and good. Thofe of them, that are 
dark, will neither fade, nor fpot. The ftrong- 
eft acids will not move them. 

N. B, In thefe colours, excepting the light 
Cinnamon, the oil of vitriol muft never be 
negledted. By this ingredient the colours 
are rendered bright and clear. 

In this dye, you may colour an almoft 
numberlefs variety of fhades, which exift be- 
tween the light Cinnamon and the, almoft, 
black, Britifh mud. 

After finilhing the high colour?, a little 
bark of almoft any kind may be added to the 
dye, which will then give you good browns 
on coarfe cloths for common ufe. This is 
worthy the dyers obfervance. 

Obferve in general, that you never put in 
the oil of vitriol, until the ground of the col- 
our is laid in the cloh; for if the dver add 
ever fo much Camwood after the oil is in, it 
will be entirely loft. 



ASSISTANT. 43 



CHAP. VII. 

Fcr Saxon Grten. 

JL AKE three ounces of good In- 
digo, pound or levigate it fo fmall, as to run 
it through a fine fieve. Put your Indigo, 
thus prepared, in tj a fmall veffel, gradually 
add one pound of the oil of virroil ftirrir 
for one hour. It may then ftani for a day, 
excepting, two or three times, in this period, 
it fhou'd be worked in the fame manner by 
ftirring it. After this pr^cefs, it i*fic (jt ufe. 
In this fta<T, the compound nmy be pre- 
ferved for a year, being put into a glafs I 
tie and toi.fi td with a flop ax. 

It is the be ter way, 'op- a nvm er of 

pounds of the o;;, with their profortio: 
Indigo; obiervr g io fhAc-, or ftir the en- 
gradients well (o^crhr^ ^h^a vou with to 
pour off for ufe. Thick cloth mi 
dyed till it is napped, Ihorne aac ail the nuts 
picked off. 



44 THE COUNTRY DYER'* 

For twenty yards of fulled cloth, twenty 
five yards cf baize, or thirty yards of thin 
cloth ; take ten pounds of good Fuftick, 
chipped fire and put it irto the copper fill- 
ed with clean w at cr # Bring the water almoft 
to boil. 

Apply this heat for eight or nine hours. 
Then take out the chips, and lay them where 
they will dry; for they may be afterwards 
profitably employed in common drab col- 
ours. 

Now have the dye hot and dip your cloth 
. for h.i'f an hour. Then take it up for cooling. 
Add four pounds of,AUum to the dye and 
take off the filth that rifes. Now dip again 
for an hour ; then take up the cloth, bring 
thedye to boi*, and put in feven, or eight 
fpoonf.ls of the compound of oil of vitriol 
and ]nc;i jo. Let the dye boil a few minutes, 
' flir it w-11; then dip the clorh half an hour, 
turn the reel brifldy and kvcp the clo h c- 
fen. Now take it up tocooL Li this man- 
ner repeat dipping and cooling till the colour 
is obtained. Then rinfc and dry it for dreA 
fing. 



ASSISTANT. 41 

Now without the addition of any more 
dyeftuff; ren cr twelve yards may becolovrtd 
i r - che fame dye, of a beaut^f J pea LTeen, by 
d p^ing e*o or th-ee times. Th^ ooih alio 
will retain ih? colour tolo.abiy \se i. 

Buttle Green. 

Two methods «.re employed, toobtai - this 
colour. B, the firlt the cloth is brought to 
a dan< Saxon grren ; in the next p'.acc 
pods is the f*me that is fo;l;wcd i»» navy 
blue. 

But the colour is n^t bright when obtain* 
ed, and i- attended wrh mo.e eXpence and 
tri uhle than the fecund me hod, which 
fhall recommend. 

The pre r cripaon, for rwerty yards of full- 
ed c] ; f -b. Run or dip it in vitriol water, m 
the fame manner, as fcr Riven b<a 
rinfe the cloth and empty the r. la 

the n^-xt place take fix p 
tick chips, and fcur pounds of Lo 
chips ; bo i them well in the cup er for 
four or five hours. Then dip the cloth for 
half an hour 5 then cool it, and thus proceed 



45 THE COUNTRY DYER'* 

till the colour h obtained* After this rinfc 
and dry It for dreffing. 

N. B. If there be two drafts, or packs of 
clo r .h to colour ; take out part of the liquor, 
that the dye may equally colour each pack, 
by occasionally adding the Jiquor again -as 
ycu need it. 



CHAP VIII. 
For Saxon Blue. 

25 Y one fimple procefs, th's col- 
our is obtained. All the utenfiis n ttfl be 
perfe&ly clean ; the water in the copper be 
brought to boil. 

Then put in a fmall quantity ofihe com- 
pound made tfpi! of vitriol *nd Indigo* 
after this let it boil for a few minuted ; the 
doth being well wet with warm water, is then 
to be dipped for half an hour ; then take it 
up to coo 1 . Follow this procefs of dipping 



ASSISTANT. 4 f 

?.nd cooling until you obtain the colour you 
defire. 

N. B. The reel muft be turned brifkly 
and the cloth kept open as it runs. 



CHAP, IX. 

For Snuff Brown. 

X AKE twenty yards of fulled 
cloth, run it in a Copperas liquor, the fame 
as for N T avy blue. Rinfe the cloth, empty 
the copper. Next fill it with clean wa:er, 
put in ten pounds of Fuftick chips and one 
bufhel of Butternut bark ; boil them fe; four 
or f;ve hours ; then dip the cloth for half an 
hour j take it up to cool, and follow the 
procefs of dipping and cooling^ till you ob- 
tain the colour dtfigned. 

Hemlock bark will anfwer, as afubftitute, 
for Butternut ; but its colour b not fo good, 
nor fo durable, 



4 8 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

N. B. la this colour, it is the better way 
to have the liquor of Fullick, and of Butter- 
nut, boiled ftparately, and put into tubs to 
be employed as ocelli m requires. If the 
d\edo r,ot bear fufficirntly upon the yellow, 
add to it theTquor of Fu flick ; if the red be 
wanting, empiov the liquor of Butternut. 

By this met bo 1, ihe dv er may induce the 
colour to trivet h.s fincy. 

H iving obtained the fir ft oV jed of the d e, 
if you wifh to colour common browns, add to 
it the barks of yellow oak and hemlock ; 
boil them well in the dye and then you may 
obtain a vsrietv of fhades on the brown. 

Remembe-r, alfo, thar }our clo h muft be 
well Coppera ed before \ou run it in ihe- d\e. 

Ts T . B. When you have obtained the fnuff 
brown, b\ adding a little of tne dect dlion of 
Logwo >d the fame dye by further dipping 
wit! produce a London fmoak. 

P. S. By running fcJothr, w ? ii h has ei'her 
of thrfe colours, in a veak fo^ution of Pearl- 
aflh, will give it more of a red caft. 



ASSISTANT. « 



CHAP. X. 

For Scarlet. 



T 



HIS is ftyledthe king of col- 
ours. But a few year fm:e, the fcailet was 
firft produced from the dye* of this country. 
An opinion generally circulated, that the 
waters cf ica would not anfwer in this 

dye; and alfo that a veflcl of filver, or pure 
block-tin was r.eccflary to contain the fcarlet 
dye. However, experience has taught us, 
that thefe opinions are erroneous and ground- 
Jefs. 

The waters of this country are as pure and 
fo ft, as chofc of Europe. And a brafs, or 
copprr caldron, if well cleanfed, will leave 
the colour a ; clean and bi as any veffei 

whatever. Brafs is to be prefered, fince it 
is kept bright, with lefs trouble. 

To produce a neat fcarlet upon cloth?, 
they mud be milleJ, napped and fliorne, fit 
fer the pr efs, before they be dyed ; as cirdT- 
E 



S o THE COUNTRY DYER'* 

ing will tarnifh th« colour ; befide, this 
method will fave much dye.fluff, which comes 
highly charged. 

After the cloth is well dreffed for the dyr, 
for feven pounds of cloth, take one pound 
of Aquafortis duplex and one pound of .wa- 
ter; put them in a glafs veffel ; add one 
ounce of Salamoniac y gradually, having it 
pounded fine, add half an ounce of Salnitre^ 
in the fame manner, fhake them together, 
till the fairs are defolved ; then add to the 
compound, three ounces of granulated tin y 
introduce it gradually, till it is all in. It 
will be well to fet, or mis it in the morning- 
then it will be ready for ufe, the next morn- 
ing. So foon as the tin is principally defolv- 
ed, make the venei clofe, with a glafs or 
Beefwa>: ftopper. This is then called the 
icmpofttionfcr [cariet. 

The cloth being wellceanfed and. wet, in 
order for dying, fill the copper with pure 
prater; put in three pounds of wheat bran> 
enelofed in a bag, made for that ufe and t\ed 
clofely. Let the water boil ; then take out 
the bag of bran. AcM to thee!} e ore ounce 



AS3:STAN T T. e t 

and an ^alf of creatntflrta t ; well pulverifcd. 
Let ic boil a few minutes ; then *dd two 
ounces of Cochineal. Boil fifteen minutes ; 
then introduce one third of the competition, 
already prepared, and the dye w II cha 
from a deep, to a blood red* 

Now dip the clorh for an hour ; keep the 
h fpread, and let it run brifkly on the 
reel. Take it up to cool ; add to the dye a* 
before and dip for an hour ; take up and 
cool again ; add, dip and cool the third tiiTie, 
in the fame tn . Noh' put into the dye, 

jj.nfuls of Turmerech, we 
igated ; boil a few inin'J&£ 5 dip the cloth 
half an hour h pill be the fourth and 

laft dipping; then take up and rinfeit well 
for drying and preffin 

You will obferve, that the procefs, as we 
have \ it, requires fix ounces c 

fire ounces of creamtartar, one ounce of 

miafij half an ounce of trc, or 

pt ounces of granulated tin y to- 

geth .\t Tunrerech mer. 1 in the 

pre cription. Thcfe will coiour -even pounds 

of cloth, or other goods in proportion, a 



jt THE COUNTRY DYER's 

beautiful fcarlet* equal to any that is im- 
ported. 
P. S. Grain-tin is a mettle by itfelf ; it 

comes in various forms and fize§, from half 
an ounce, to half a pound in weight. It 
gives a bright appearance. 

To granulate this tin is to reduce it into 
fmall particles, or grains, which is done, in 
the following manner. Take the grain-tin 
and melt it down, ever a hot fire; then hold 
ft, about two feet, above a prilful of clean 
water, and by fluking the hand, gradually 
drop it into the water. Then take it out lad 
dry it for ufe. 

N. B In colouring, be careful to pour 
none of the fed amen r, of the competition in- 
to the dye. 

Take off all the filth that rifts on the 
furface, previous to each dipping. 

Enter your goods when the dye is boiling. 

After the cloth is well rinled, lay the nap 
with a clean br^fh ; then tenter. Af er the 
cloth is dried, take out all fperk?, in the cloth, 
with tweezers. Pref* in clean papers, not 



ASSISTANT. 41 

hot; for the heat of the prefs tarnifhes the 
colour, or raakes it coo red. 

Barry Red. 

This colour is obtained in the fame meth- 
od as the fcarler, excepting thefe •> it requires 
but one half of the compoGtion fur fcarlet, 
and one ounce and an half cf Cochineal for 
every pound of cloth, together wit^i two 
ounces of Alum. The cloth you will dip 
three times as in fcarlet, and put in one third 
of the Alum each time previous to dipping; 
then rinfe for drying and preffing. 

The barry is but little employed, exec 
on fome fine cloths for tafty perfons. Thi* 
colour rcfle&s a fhining luftrc ; it is beauti- 
ful, permanent and very expenfive. 

Orange colour* 

This is red and yellow united. Various 
methods procure it ; and it will be bright, 
or dull according to the ingredients employ- 
ed to obtain ic. 

The beft and brighteft orange is railed bj 
firft colouring the cloth fcarlet, and then dij 
E a 



$4 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

ping it in a yellow dye made of Termerech 
and Fuftick. 

AJfo it may be obtained by colouring the 
cloth crimfon and then yellow ; or firit dip- 
ping in Redwood, or a madder dye, and af- 
terwards in the yellow d^e. 

However, this colour, on woolen?, is not 
HiUwh ufed in this country ♦ 



C H A, P. XL 

For Crimfon. 

A HIS is the natural colour, 
which Cochineal gives to woolens when boil- 
ed in Alu-.n and- Tartar. 

Recipe. Fill the copper with clean wa- 
ter ; for twenty pounds of fulled cloth, put 
into the copper two pound and an half of 
Alum ; three fourths of a po-?nd of cream- 
tartar 5 and four quarts of wheat bran, 
having ths flower well Gfted from it. Let 
ihefe boil in the copper till the Alum and 



ASSISTANT. - 53 

Tartar be dtrfolved. Then dip the cloth for 
an hour ; take it up to cogl ; then dip three 
hours. In this dipping, for the greater part of 
the time the cloth ma> lie in the liquor; be- 
ing careful, however, to keep it uadcr the 
furface of the dye, that it may equally re- 
ceive the falts. When the cloth is taken 
up cool it well ; then fold it, and cover it, 
fcr two or th'ce davs ; in the mean time ob- 
ferveto fo'd it over once or twice in a day. 
After this rinfe your cloth thoroughly in a 
ftre m of w*ter. 

When this is done the cloth will give you 
the colour of a dark ream, and is p epared 
to relieve the Ccchineal. Now empty the 
corner and fupply it with frefh water. 

When it be is to boil, put in ha'f an 
oun:e of Cochineal and h^if an cu v.eof 
cre.mtarr.r pulvcrrfedtt poundi f loth. 

Let it boil for twenty minutes ; then dip 
the c'oth for one e up a. d coof. 

Addas much more •!, to the 

dye, as \ou pir in :h< fi ft ti ne Proceed 
to dip and cool as before, for two or thiec 
times 3 n^w the ports of the wool "will re- 



S$ TM1 COUNTRY DYER's 

ceivc the Cochineal, which will beftow on the 
cloth a beautiful crimfor, that is permanent. 

Now rinfe and dry for preffing. 

N. B. All cloth defigned to be coloured, 
fhould be napped, fhorne and the nubs 
cutoff, tcfoici: is dyed. 



CHAP. XII. 
For Madder nd. 

X HE preparation tor this dye 
is fimilar to that of crimfon. For one pound 
of cloth, put in the copper four ounces of 
Alum, one ounce of red Tartar, and the 
fame quantity of wheat bran as you employ 
In crin fon. Obferve the fame procefs in 
dipping and cooling. 

For the next procefs empty, and fill jour 
copper a ain. When the water has acquir- 
ed the warmth that you can juft endure your 
hand in it ; for every pound of cloth, put in 
half a pound of the bed Madder. Be care- 



ASSISTANT. 5f 

ful to mix it well in the copper, before you 
introduce the cloth. Then dip for an hour. 
Oblerve, at the fame time, that the dye muft 
not have more than half the heat, which 
would be neeefTary to boil it. If the dye 
be too hot, it will tarnilh the colour. 

Having dipped, for one hour, take up the 
cloth fjr cooling. Then dip, fhort dips two 
or three times, that the colour may be equal 
and the flrength of 'he Madder received. 

N. B. It is a good method to foak the 
Madder^ feveral hours in four beer, or four 
bran water, before it is emp ! oyed in the dye. 

M\dder-red if a beautiful and permanent 
colour. 



C H A P. XIII. 

Fcr Pink col Air. 

1 HIS isafairtrcd. The be^ 
are ftbtaintd in the fcsr'et dye. The other 
method to obtain ic is in the crimibn, or 



5l THE COUNTRY DYER»* 

madder dye ; but this does not afford (o good, 
or fo bright: a colour. 

Pinks >sr£ generally ufed for.womens £kirts ; 

■ 

and fometimes for bed coverings. 

Thedycr may colour good pinks in the 
fame liquor, whence he has obtained his 
fcarler, before he has put in the Termerech. 
Termerech tarniihes the pink. Add, to the 
dye, about half an ounce of Cochineal, to 
every pound of clcrh. Dip two hours, then 
cool and rinfe forpreffing. 

There will be a fufficient quantity of f r ir- 
its left in the fcariee d\r, after you have col- 
oured twenty pounds of doth, to give a good 
pink colour to feven or eight pounds more. 

If you colour pinks in a crimfbn, or mad- 
der dye, proportion your dyeftuff according 
to the (hade required. 

nnethod of colouringip^ks vrill be a 
faring to the dyer 

If >ou have pinks -to colour and no fcar- 
let, proceed in the fame way, as for fcarlet ; 
obfervirv?, ar the fame ti -;v?, that pinks will 
nor : te ihm one third of the dye- 

RufF, whkh j cu put in -for .full fcarlet. 



ASSISTANT. 59 

If the dyer wifh to colour Leloch ; fcalce 
the cloth after it is dyed fcar'let' pinki and run 
it in awealc liquor of Logwood adding to it, 
one, or two table fpoonfuls of the oil of vitri- 
ol, for fix or feven yards of cloch. Let it boil, 
for a few minutes after the oil is in before 
you dip the cloth. 

N. B. By adding to, or diminifhing the 
ftrength of thedyeftuff, you -may produce a 
variety of (hades, in colouring pink and Le- 
loch. 



CHAP. XIV. 
For Purplt. 

INthefirft ages of the world, 
this was efteemed the richeft of all colours. 
Purple was the colour of gan thatdLfig- 

nattd men, who were diftmguifhed, by their 
civil and reL.riciu {utiens. 

That beautiful co!o :r is obtained from 
afikll fiih, refembling the ; Pter. It is 



Go THE COUNTRY DYER's 

taken on the coaft of Paleiline. Without 
any other ingredient, this fifh, called the 
purple, gives a bright and lading colour to 
all goods that have received its impreffion. 
But this dyeftufF comes fo highly charged, 
that it has never been much employed in 
any part of Europe. 

The Grecians found a fubftiture, for this 
purple in a plant, or was what they called 
Amorgis. But neither of thefe methods will 
ever be attended in this part of the world, as 
both arc exper five, 

For <he purples now obtained, you muft 
make dye for crimfon and bring your cloth to 
that colour according to the method preferr- 
ed for that dye* Afrer this dip your clo:h in 
the blue vat until it haf obtained the purple 
fhade, which you choofe to imprefs. The 
colour wiil be bright and permanent. 

N. p. ror purple, di clothifc the In- 

digo vat-when the dye is weak. 

It is much the better method, io nip well, 
and (hear the clorh, before i: is coloured. 

When dyed, rinfe it thoroughly. You 
would do well to fcour it through the mill, 



ASSISTANT. 6* 

in aweik fuds, af:er it is rir.feJ ; that the 
cloth may bt deajifed fr m the difagreeabie 
final, which it take* from the blue vat. 



CHAP. XV. 
Chretfrtm Redwood, 

A HIS colour is but little uftd 
at the prefent a y, becaufc it fuon fades. 
Almoft any acid liquor will fpot ir. Cam- 
w ol 4J1I produce, almoft as bright a clar- 
et, as Redwood, and its colour is durabe. 

Przfcription f.r claret from Redwood. 

The cloth mud be well prepared in AIuti 
and red Tartar. The copper being filled 
with clean wa&r, for twenty jards of fulled 
clo*h, pu: In th ee pounds of Alum and half 
a pound of red Tartar. Let them boil, till 
v.eU dcfolved. Then dip the c o:h fcr half 
an hoar ; coo! ir, then d:p three hours : Af- 
ter this, cool and rinfe well the cloth in run- 
F 



6* THE COUNTRY DYER's 

ning water. Now empty the copper and 
fill again with water. Put in nine pounds 
of Redwood and two pounds of Logwood, 
chipped very fine. Boil them three or four 
hours; then dip the cloth for half an hour; 
then darken the fhade with Verdegrife. The 
Verdegrife mud be ground with urine to a 
pafte, of the fame confiftency as the oil and 
Indigo for green. The dyer will add about 
one tea-fpoonful of the Verdegrife, thus pre- 
pared, to the dye, mixing it well with the 
liquor; then dip half an hour; then cool. 
Thus proceed till the colour defired is ob- 
tained. 

If die d}*?r wifh to colour Redwood red, 
he muft omit the Logwood and Verde 6 rife, 
and add a little more Redwood. 

Some dyers darken the fhade with Cop- 
peras i but it will not give^fo bright a < o!- 
our as Verdegrife. But, as has been oofcrv- 
ed, this colour foon f^des. 

However, upon feme goods, Redwood 
will beftow a good colour, by oMerving ihe 
following direction. Prepa e \our g oorfs, as 
before prefcj; ibed, and put them into a brafs 



ASSISTANT. 6j 

kettle, with the Redwood. Let them foak 
for nine or ten days. By this method you 
may obtain a good red, on yarn, which will 
bear waftiing in foap fud> s which will render 
the colour darker and brighter* In this way 
wamen may eoieur their own yarn * but cloth 
will not receive the colour equally. 



CHAP- XVI. 
Buffi or cream cckur. 

A HIS is but little ufed, except 
in men's fmall clothes. To produce this col- 
our, for twenty yards of fulled cloth, fill the 
copper with pure water; all the things em- 
ployed muft be perfectly clean ; bring the 
water almoft to boil; then put in one quart 
of clear and ftrong Fuftick liquor; mix 1% 
well with the water ; then dip the cloth an 
hour; keep it open, and run it brifkly over 
the reel. When the cloth is taken up, the 



64 THE COUNTRY l?YER's 

dyer will hardly perceive it has changed 
from the colour of the wooi. 

Now add to the dye about half a tahle- 
fpoonful of Jear oil vitriol ; then dip for 
half an hour ; cool the cloth, and if it be not 
fufficiendy dark add a little more of the oil 
and dip again; perhaps lepeaced dippings 
may be required. 

However, this colour h apt to be too dark 
rather than light. When the Colour is ob- 
tained, the dyer muft pay drift attention and 
rinfe the vloth immediately, left it collefifc 
dirt and fpots. This colour is beautiful, 
permanent and will endure wafhing. 



CHAP. XVII. 

For ajh colour > uith Nut gals, 






X* OR twenty )ards of Aill^ 
cloth, put into the copper three or four ta- 
ble-fpoonfuis of the flour of Nutgals, that 
is, they muft be well levigated. Let the dye 



ASSISTANT. 65 

boil for half an hour ; then dip half an hours 
take up and cool the cloth. No?/ add to 
the dye a piece of Alum about the fize of a 
Quail's egg > let it boil, being careful uptake 
off the filth that rifes on the furface of the 
dye. 

Now dip the cloth half an hour, keeping 
it open and run ning on the reel -, take up and 
cool it. Now add to the dye a tea-fpoonful 
of Copperas and dip as before, till the colour 
be obtained. 

If the dyer think proper, he may increcfe 
the quantity of Copperas a* the colour dark- 
ens; however he need be cautious, how he 
employs it. Experience will fooa teach him. 
Wr.ere Nutgall cannot beobrained, afh may 
be coloured with barks. Fur the quantity 
of clc:h, above named, take cne peck of yel- 
low birch bark, as much of uhite afh hark) 
well rolled, and two quarts of Saffafras bark, 
boil them well together for two or ;h-ce 
h^urs i t thrn Uk,- our aH the bi:k^ : dip 
two, or three times,. as in other d-r 
the cloth is feid to be gaurdtd, t, 
received the foundation of the cQlbti; 
F 2 ^ 



66 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

this darken the fhade, by the addition of 
Copperas, the fame as in 'he dye of Nut^al*, 
only this will require a little more Copperas. 
This method of dying afh, produces a de- 
cent colour. 

For Slate. 

When the cloth has obtained a dark afh, 
ciiher (rom Nutgals, or barks, run it in a weak 
deco&ion of Logwood. Repeat the opera- 
tion ; if neceffary, add a little Copperas un- 
till the, colour defired, is produced. 

At firft, Slate appears beautiful j but it 
foon fades, and leaves to the cloth, only a 
poor, dirty, alh colour. 



CHAP. XVIII. 

For Forejl Drab. 

HIS colour is much ufed, on 
cloths for great coats and is tunable tor fuch 
garments. 



T 



ASSISTANT. Cy 

For twenty yards of fulled coth; your 
er being filled vvith pure water, put i« 
a pailful of Sumach, chipped fi e, one potw d 
of Fuftick, half a pail of Alder bark and two 
ounces of Nutgals, well pounded. Boil 
th^m together three, or four hours. Now 
dip half an hour; then cool. Obfrrve this 
proce's of dip; ing aidcool : ng two, or three 
times. Flowever previo is to dipping the laft 
time, put in a piece cfA'um, the bignefs of a 
Quail's e^g. 

See that the fcum is taken off, every time 
you dip. Having dipped onre after the Al- 
um is in, the cloth will obtain its ground 
work. 

Take it up, and add a fmail handful of 
Copieras to the dve ; then dip the cloth h?.lf 
an hour; take upandcoul. Thui proceed, 
till the colour defired is obtained. 

N. B. Increa r ethe quantity of Copperas 
every time you dip the cloth. Rinfe well 
j:or drefling. 

This colour is inclined to darken. 
P.S. B adding a littleyellow oak, Hemlock, 
or Butternut bark to the dye, and boiling it 



68 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

well, a cheap and good brown colour may be 
produced, which many peopleprefer for com- 
mon ufe. 



CHAP XIX. 

For Sage Green. 

1 HIS colour is obtained with 
cafe and little expenfe. 

Ground your clorh in the hulks or fhells 
of the walnut, and darken it with the com- 
pound of oil vitriol and Indigo. 

For twenty yards of fulled cloth, \ ut into 
the copper of clean water, one pailful of 
walnut fhells. Boil them well for three 
hours ; then dip two or three times for ground- 
ing. After thi«, add one table-fpoonful of 
the compound; ftirthsdye; then dip half 
an hour; take up and cool; thus proceed 
from time to time till the colour meets your 
fancy. 



ASSISTANT. 69 

This green, refennbling rhe Sage leaf, 
when, in fafhion, appears beautiful. 

If rhe compound be left our, and red Tar- 
tar employed, in iieu of i*, after being dip- 
ped in the ground work ; the cloth wi'l pre- 
fent you a fawn colour which is durable. 

Pea Green. 

When you have coloured Saxon greens, 
be : n^ careful that the dje is weak ; cloth be- 
ing well wet, with warm v. ater is introduced 
to that dye, to colour pea green. Run it in 
the dye two, or three times for half an hour, 
each time. This is a faint colour and mud 
be attended with care to preferve it from 
fpottiftg. 



CHAP. XX. 

Pearl colour. 

JL EARL is a light brown bear- 
ing on the b ue. It appears to have paUtd, 



7* THE COUNTRY DYER's 

but a fmall change from the white. No 
colour is more delicate ; none more difficult 
to obtain. 

Dyers in genera), give the Pearl too dark 
afhadc* Great attention muft bebeftowed, 
to fix the proper tiat, which deferves the 
name of Pearl colour. 

All utenfils muft be as clean, as though 
you were to handle fine Holland cloth with- 
out fulleyingit. 

The copper being filled, with water, it 
fhould boil ; then put in one tea-fpoonful of 
Nutgals, vvell pounded and fifted ; boil them 
fifteen minutes. Twenty yards of fulled 
cloth, being well wet, in warm water, 
now dip for half an hour ; take up and cool. 
Now add to the dye the fame quantity of 
Nutgals ; then dip and cool as before. Put* 
in the fame quantity of Nutgals ; then dip 
and cool as before. 

Now add to the dye a piece of Copperas 
the fize of a fnow-bird's egg, apiece of Alum 
the fize of a walnut, and half a tea-fpoonful 
of the compound, oil vitriol and Indigo -, let 
them boil Airing them well together; chen 



ASSISTANT. 71 

dip as before; cool, and thus proceed, by 
dipping and cooling * leaveout the Copperas 
and gradually increafe the compound of the 
oil every time the cloth is entered. 

Perhaps the cloth, from the firft, to the 
laft of theprocefs, mul be dipped eight or 
ten times. Strift attention muft be given to 
the'e prefcript'ions. By a careful conformity 
to them the colour will be full, li^hr, and 
beautiful. Now rinfe for drefling. Nap 
with cards, or jacks, that are perfe£lly clean. 

Take r hat fide of the cloth, which is the 
molt even, for the face. 



CHAP. xxr. 

For dark Drab brown. 

]l OR twenty yards of fulled 
clo'h, put into the copper half a bulhe 1 of 
Hemlock bark and ore peck of ye 1 *k, 

or walnut bark - boil them till the (length 
of the barks is extracted; then take cut the 



;a THE COUNTRY DYER'* 

bark. Dip and cool, two or thrre times, as 
in laying the ground of other dyes. Thtn 
raife the cokur with Copperas; dipping 
and cooling, u; r>ui it become as dark as you 
dtfire. 

H ■•wever, the dver, if he pleafe may pre- 
pnre h s < loth, in Coppe as, the fame, as in 
Navy bue, and then run U in the decoction 
above mentioned. 



CHAP. XXII. 
Olive Green. 

IN this colour, 'he yellow fhade 
predominates, and is connected with a tlni of 

the iisht b ue. To b H an this colour, 
bring ;h- c'o'h up to a full yellow j then add 
the compound of oi? and Indigo, in (pall 
quantities. Dip the cloth a nua ber of times, 
until its colour meet yourfan-y. 

This cobur is bright, and is not fo much 



ASSISTANT. 71 

difpofed to fade as fome others; neither is it 
fo durable as fome. 

Sea Green. 

By various methods, this colour is obain- 
ed. Its appearance is dull and heavy. How- 
ever it is like many others, fo retimes falh- 
ionable. 

The beft method of procuring a fea green ; 
is to make the cloth a Saxon green; not fo 
full of yellow and bearing more on the blue, 
than a bright green. Rinfe your c T o:h ; 
make a new liquor of Butternut or Hem- 
lock bark ; dip the cloth and darken the 
fhade with Copperas. Dip the c o:h two or 
three times ; if it do not darken to your 
wifh, add a fmall quantity of Logwood liq- 
uor; then dip till it fuits. Now cool and 
rinfe for drcffing. 

Fawn colour. 

This is a lighufh fandv brown ; being 

very permanent, it is called one of the pri nu 

tive colours. The better way, to [reduce it 

is by obferring the following recipe. For 

G 



tf 



74 THE COUNTRY DYER'* 

twenty yards of fulled cloth, take two paiL 
fuls of Walnut (hells, or hulks, put them 
into the copper with clean water. Let rhem 
bcil thoroughly ; then dip two or three times. 
Now add four ounces of crude, or red Tartar r 
dip agsin and the colour will be good and 
durable, obtained with esfe and little ex- 
pen fe. 

"N. B. The (hells of the walnuts fliould be 
gathered and fecijred immediately after the 
the nut is ripe. 



C H A P. XXIII. 

Yellow. 

A HIS is frequently needed for 
baixe ; and fomctimes to mix wish other dye- 
fluff; fuch as greens and fnuff browns and 
in a number of other (hades, which, without 
yellow, could not be obtained ; hence this 
colour is of importance to all dyers. 



ASSISTANT. 75 

Termerech produces the beft yellow. For 
twenty yards of fulled cloth, put into the cop- 
per, two pounds of Alum and four ounces 
of cream tartar ; let them be well diffolvedi 
then boil the dye and dip the cloth, two or 
three times, for an hour each time, cool as 
often as you dip. Now rinfe the cloth, emp- 
ty the copper, and fill with clean water. 
When the water boils, having the Termer- 
ech well pounded> add four or five table- 
fpoonfuls of it to the dye ; boil a few min- 
utes, then dip the cloth half an hour ; cool, 
and thus proceed until the colour meet! 
your fancy. 

This colour is bright and lively. 

By this method, you may obtain an innu- 
merable variety of fhades, that may exift be- 
tween the draw colour and the full yellow*. 
However, it is expenfive, and is not much 
employed on cloihs in America. 

N. B. The dyer will remember the* light, 
er the ftade'is, which he means to give, in 
the fame proportion, he rauft decreafe the 
quantity of Alum and Tartar, 



7 6 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

In lieu of Termerech, yello v may be col- 
oured with Fuftick liquor. Add, according 
to the (hade you choofe to produce. Hew- 
ever, this colour is not bright, but looks 
dull ; yet it will make good greens and oth~ 
er colours, on the brown (hade. 



CHAP. XXIV. 

Olive Brown. 

T 

-*. HIS colour is eafily obtained. 
Fifft, Copperas the cloth as in Navy blue, 
only here r or twenty yards of cloth, add to 
the Copperas liquor half a pound of Roman 
Vitriol, Empty and make a new liquor, of 
Fuftick, add ten pounds j dip the cloth two, 
or three times till the colour rifes to your 
pleafure. Then rinfe and dry for drefling. 
This colour will appear dark, bright and 
lively. 



ASSISTANT. • jy 

Observations. 

Having attempted to render the prefcrip- 
tions for the colours, in the previous wcrk, 
as plain and intelligi poffib'e $ the dy- 

er may eafily follow them. If he will attend 
to the nature of various dyeftuffs and ob- 
ferve how they agree, or difagree, when mix* 
ed ; he will, in- conformity to the foregoing 
Recipes, foon be able to fix on any colour or 
pattern that may be prefented to him. 

Though there be but {"even primitive col- 
ours in nature, yet an almoft infinite variety 
of fhades may be attained from them. Too 
many to enumerate, in fo fmall a volume. 

To avoid repetitions, in the jrefcriptions 
given, for various dyes, mark this as a fund- 
ing rule : If the dye boil when you are ready 
to enter the cloth, check it with tv o cr three 
quarts of cold water, and ftir the liquor well 
before dippii; 

This fliculd always be obferved, except 
infcarlet, barry, crimfon and pinks, the 

G 2 



7 A THE COUNTRY DYER's 

fhould be entered, when the dye is boiling 
and the dye kept as hot as poffible while dip- 
ing. 



CHAP. XXV. 

On whitening woolen cloth. 

J\ CLOSE, convenient room ia 
neceffary for this purpofe. It flhould be 
prepared with window-fhutters, which may 
be thrown open, when neceffary. A fufE^ 
cient quantity of tenterhooks fhould be plac- 
ed ..in the joifts to hold up the cloth while 
whitening- The cloth being clean and moifty 
not fo wet as to drip, the workman hangs it, 
by the felvage, on the hooks; beginning at 
one end and proceeding to the other, keep- 
ing it fpread, that one part may not fold on 
another* For twenty yards of cloth take two 
pounds of fulphur, grofsly beaten, put it into 
three, or four iron pans or kettles, placed in 
different parts of the room ; fprinklc aflica 



ASSISTANT, 79 

over the fulphuiy and fet it on fire j (hut the 
room clofe for ten hours. Then, going the 
outfide, throw open the window-ftiutters, to 
let the fulpherous vapour blow off. For any 
perfon to enter fuch a room before it is ren- 
tulated, he would be in danger of fuffocation. 

By this proceedure, woolen cloth may be 
rendered as white as fine India fhirting. 

Stockings, or hofe and other fmall things 
may be whitened under a long tub. 



CHAP. XXVI, 

On mixing colours three by three. 

XjLUE, red and yellow, pro*- 
''duce ruddy olives, gveenifh greys and other 
< r co!ours of the fame kind. 

4< When the mixture contains blue it is 
f< ufual to begin with that colour. 

^Blue, red and fawn produce from the 
"darkeft to the lighted. 






So THE COUNTRY DYER's 

< c Blue, red and black produce a numerous 
" variety of all {hades, 

" Blue, yellow and fawn produce greens 
"and olives of all kinds. 

Cf Blue, yellow and black produce all dark 
H greens to a black. 

Blue, fawn and black produce olires and 

greenilh greys. Red, yellow and fawn 

produce orange and gold colour, burnt 
u cinnamon and tobacco colours of all kinds, 

€c Red, yellow and black' produce a 
11 colour, which refembles a withered leaf. 

" Laftly from yellow fawn and black, you 
cf obtain hair colour, nut brown &c. 

€C Four of thefe colours may be mixed to- 
u gether, and (ometimes five; but this is not 
"ufual. 

" It is needlefs to enlarge upon this fub- 
f c je&. I fhall only obferve, that foftyrilflfer- 
" ent fhades may be obtained from ea;h col- 
"onr 

< c The defigo of this enumeration is only 
C U^ icral idea of the ingredients, 

c< v -p?r, for the produ&ion of col-- 

cc ours cornpofed of feverai others,'' 



ASSISTANT. II 



CHAP. XXVII. 

For dying and drejjing Fujl'ian* Cotton and 

Linen. 



T 



HE cloth defigned for Fuf- 
tian, whether waled, or plain. The waled 
Fuftian is fo woven, that the filing lies en 
that fide of the cloth defigned for the face. 
The plain, )$ woven, like common dfotlu 
The filling mud be cotton, beaten up clofeljr, 
that it may bear napping. Your cloth 
fliould be napped, before it is coloured, that 
the dye may penetrate into the pores of the 
fluff. ♦ 

Cotton and linen cloth is hard to be col- 
oured. 

To nap Fuftian, you fliould have a ftool 
to nap over ; one that will (land firmly ; it 
may be twenty inches wioe, covered, and a 
}ictl« crow ing in the middle, with a defign 
for the Teafels to take hold on the cotton to 
raife a nap. 



t* THE COUNTRY DYER's 

Hook, or make f.ft the clorh, to the edge 
of the (tool ; oppofite to the fide on which 
the workman (lands. Draw the cloth fo 
that it may not i inkle, while napping ; if it 
fhould, TeafeTf taking ftrong hold*- might 
tenr and injure the cloth. The cloth being 
thus prepared, begin at one end; having 
two hands of Teafcls, draw one after the oth- 
er, cxi the cloth, till a thick nap is raked. 
Thus proceed until you have finiihed tht 
piece. 

, Cufc effj with Tmall {hears, all nubs that 
appear. 

They ought net xz be cxtra&ed, with 

Tweazers, for they will leave holes in the 

cloth. 

IfTeafeL' cannot be obtained, the nap 
muft be raifed with clothiers jacks. Their 

teeth muft be fharpened on a grindftone. 

However,, this i^ an uncomfortable way to 

nap Fuftun. Teafels are much cheaper and 

better. Every clothier ought to cultivate 

them, which hemay do, with little trouble. 

Euftian may be napped and fhorn, till it 

will appear as beautiful as broad-cloth ; but 



ASSISTANT. 83 

it will be cxpenfive to the clothier, and un- 
profitable to the owner. 

For twenty yards of wa'ed Fuftian, or 
ity-fi^e of plain well na: ped 2nd ready 
the dye ; fill the copper clean 

ter, put in o:e pound and an ha'.f of Cop 
as and one pound of Ro r,an vicriol ; boil 
them together and take (ff the fii:h thar ri£ 
es. Then dip ; keep the cloth open on the 
reel ; rva it brifkly for one hour ; at the fame 
time gi mu.h heat ro your die as poffi- 

ble. Now take up ro cqoIj dip again, in 
the fame liquor, f or two hours ; then take 
up, cojI and ri fe the cloth well. Empty the 
copper a: d fill with wafer; put in 

eigh' pounds of good Fuflick, chipped fmall; 
bo*, it four or fie hours; then dip an hour; 
take up and coo! ; dip rnJ o> in, ind 

fo proceed kt colour rife to the pattern 

you choofe. 

Rinfe v, nd after the cloth is dry, 

raife the nap with jacks and give a lighc 
pi effing. 

This nifcthod i c to be prefer ed, as it leaves 
the colon r bright and cear. 



84 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

If the dyer wifti to give a lighter (hade, he 
muft employ lefs of the Copperas and 
vitriol, in proportion. Experience will 
foon teach him the proportion of thefe, to 
fix on the fhade which hedefignsto produce. 

There are other methods ufed, to obtain 
this colour. Some, firft run the cloth in 
Fuftick liquor and raife the luftre, with Ro- 
man vuriol ; and then darken with Copper- 
as i all which is done in the fame pool or 
dye. This will give a good colour $ but 
it is hard to darken and, when obtained, it 
is not fo bright, nor fo durable as the one 
firft mentioned. 

Some raife the colour with Alum; but 
this is the pooreft method of smy that is em- 
ployed to obtain it. The Alum leaves the 
cloth harfh and brittle j befide, it is nearly 
impofible to darken the colour. 

Dark Olive green, en lintn and cotton. 

Sometimes* onFuflians, this colour isfafti* 
lonable. Prepare the cloth as before ; for 
twenty yards of waled, or twerty-five of 
Jplain cloth; put in the copper, t<vo pounds 



ASSISTANT. 85 

of Roman vitriol j let it boil ; then dip two, 
or three hours ; keep the liquor hot while 
dipping. Then coo; and rinle clean; make 
a new pool, with ei ht pounds of Fuftick 
and four p )^n:\s of Logwood. B >il them 
well together j then dip and coo 1 , from time 
to time, till the colour n.eet your fancy. 
Now nnfc and drcis as £jr other Fuliian. 



CHAP. XXVIII. 
Blue dye for Lin n and Cotton. 

X O obtain this colour, in the 
cold water var, the dyer fhould have two 
vat-, each one containing about two barrels. 
Tney ihould be abou: three feet high, that 
the fkeins, when f un^ in the va , ma) not 
d.fturS the grounds at the bo r tom. 

There fhould be two vats, in order when 
one i> weak, (he yarn may in the other be 
brought up to a full colour ; and alfo when 
H 



gS THE COUNTRY DYER's 

one in ftrength is employed, the other may 
be replenished with dytftuff. 

To raife, or fet a new vat, ft fhould be 
about two thirds full of clean water ; it fhould 
Hand in the fun or in fotne warm corner of a 
room. Put in four quarts of gjod malt and 
as much wheat bran ; from both, all the 
flower fhould be fifted. 

Stir the dye once or twice a day, for four 
or five days. Next put in hx pounds of 
Potafh defolved in warm water, and one 
pound of good Madder -, flir the dye well. 
Take two pound of well chofen Indigo, 
grind it well and turn it in after the fame 
manner as in the woollen vat« Stir again, 
that the ingredients may be united. Now 
it may (land, excepting it fhould be ftirred 
once in twelve hours. 

If the weather be warm, perhaps, the dye 
will begin to work in fourteen, or twenty 
days. Tou will know when this takes place 
from the liquor, which will give you a dark 
green appearance, and a little froth or*, head 
will rife on the furface of the dye* 



ASSISTANT. 8 7 

Now the dye flaould be plunged, with a 
rake, once a day, till it is in a proper ftate 
for dying. 

If the dye will work, in five or fix weeks, 
it will do well, and hfl: feveral years, if no 
di ty yarn, or greafy goods be entered. 

When the d>e is in a proper (late for col- 
ouring, ic Will appear of a dark green, and a 
deep blue froth or head, will conrinue to 
float, on the top of the liquor. Without 
thrf- tokens, it will adt colour. 

Wneu the d,e becomes weak, replenish 
it with Ir.digo, Potafli and Madder, in the 
quantities before prefcribtd. 

N. B. When the dye is replenifhed, a 
quart of malt and as much wheat bran mull 
be j d :ed to keep it alive. The dye will be 
fit for colouring again in four or five days. 

The yarn, in order for dipping, fhould be 
cleanfed from all fi,.h ; the fkdns fliould be 
let down fingly, with a flick run through 
them, which will reft on the top of the vat. 

By this the dyer may fhift the yarn, which 
mud be ftriftly attended, in order that the 
fkeins may equally receive the colour* 



88 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

When the yarn is as dark as you wifh, take 
it up, wring, rinfe and dry it. 

Perhaps, if the dye be rather weak, the 
yarn will require repeated dippings, 

There are many method**, by which blue 
is obtained on cotton and linen \ but the a- 
bove, in general, is moft approved. 

The Second procefs to obtain blue en Linen and 

Cotton. 

The dyer may take barrel?, or veffels of a 
larger, or fmaller fize, in proportion to the 
goods, which he expefts to colour. How- 
ever, vats made for the purpofe are prefer- 
able. 

See that the calks are perfeftty clean. 

If the dye be fet in a barrel cafk, grind 
with a ball one pound and an half of good 
Indigo to a paftej while grinding, moiften 
it with fome lime-water and a folution of Pot- 
afli which we fhall foon notice. 

Defolve three pounds of Potafh, in an iron 
kettle with three quarts of water. Steap one 
pound and an half of quick lime in three or 
four quarts of hot water, and when it is well. 



ASSISTANT, 83 

fettled, turn off the water into the Potafh * 
then pour the Indigo into this compound of 
Potafh and lime, after the fame manner as 
is prefcribed for the woollen blue vat. Let 
thefe boil ^together, moderately, till the In- 
digo rifes to the top of the liquor which 
may be known, by rapping the bottom of 
the kettle with a fmall (tick j ifjt found 
hollow the d\e is fufficiently united. Now 
flack as much more lime ; add fix or eight 
quarts of warm water and three pounds of 
Copperas. When the Copperas is well de- 
folved, turn it into the vat or cafk, which is 
to beprevioufly about half filled with warm 
water ; then turn in the compound oflndi- 
g'o &c. from the kettle. Stir the whole to- 
gether; then with warm water fill the vat, 
within two inches of the top. After this, 
ftir it with a flick, three or four times in a 
day till it is fit for ufe. Perhaps it will come 
to maturity in one day ; however, this much 
depends on the warmth, or coolnefs of the 
weather. 

The yarn in this vat, is to be worl'^d after 
the fame manner, as was prefcribed in the 
H2 



jo THE COUNTRY DYER's 

other dye t When in the dye, the yarn ftiould 
app. a drirk gieen ; and when cx r ofed 

to the aif change to a blue. 

Thefe vars produce a large head, or blue 
frorh which flo;us on the top of the liquor. 

This dye cannot be rep'enifhed; when the 
flrength is exhausted, it muft be thrown out. 
It would be convenient to I ave two vats. 
If one dye he weak, begin to colour in that, 
and fL fh i he other, which fhou^d be 
ftrcng. B) ihcfe accommodations, the dy- 
er rcay colour when he pleafes. This is nn 
expeditious way, bec'suft the dye is direftly 
ughltoworkj produces good cl- 

ours. But the firfi method it fprefe ..h>e $ 
becaufe by timely repleniihing it, you have 
a conftint dyc- 

N; B. If this dye become faint, you mutt* 
rake it, and let it fettle, before von dip 
again ; for the iedarnents wiH injure the 
colour. 

%hird frocefs to cltahi blue, on Cotton and 
Linen, with Logwood. 

■prepare. the yarn with Roma:; vitriol. For 



ASSISTANT. Si 

every pound into a kettle- of 

water twa cunt triol ; let it de- 

foivej then fpreud Fivthe flkcins of yarn; 
let he;n boil, for two hours ; (hen rake out 
and rinfe. Make a liquor of Logwood. For 
every pound u r varn, employ four ounces of 
Log i and boiled in a ket- 

tle by itfelf ; then titan it into the kettle, 
wjiere i colouied, after taking 

out all the chips. The yarn may boil in this 
liquor and &e d h.Vf an hour. This 

proceG of d ; pping may be repeated, two, or 
three times, till the colour rifesto our fancy. 
n take up, rinfe and f c r it 3 in a weak 
fuds, to prevent its being brittle. 

The cyt prcduces a bright blue; but it 

foon languifhes. It will anfwer if it be not 

i he fun and air. Being a cheap 

may dye this blue, and for- 

fon able, to them. 

N B. For every pound of yarn, make two- 
ODS of liquor, 



$8 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

C H A P. XXIX. 
fo dye thread purple, olive brown and black. 

Jl URPLE* for one pound of 
thread, boil five ounces of Logwood, in an 
Iron veflel, for three, or four hours. After 
boiling, add two ounces of Alum to the liq- 
uor, after it is defolved put in the thread ? 
let Gmmer two or three hours ; then take up 
and fcour it in a weak fuds. . 

Olive Brown ; for one pound of thread, 
put into a kettle, with two gallons of water* 
half a pound of Fuftick well chipped 5 boil it 
three or four hours; then put in half an 
ounce of Roman vitriol and one ounce of 
Copperas; let them defolve; then introduce 
the thread $ let it fimmer, one hour ; then 
take up. I fit be not dark enough, add a 
little more Copperas to the dye and dip a- 
gain. 

After it is coloured and rinfed, boil the 
thread in water, with a handful of wheat bran 
to render it foft and pliable. 



ASSISTANT. 9$ 

Black ; for One pound of thread, put four 
quarts of )ellow oak bark into tvoor three 
gallons of water. Boil it three, or four hours, 
then take out the bark, and add to the liquor 
three ounces of Copperas ; after it is defblv* 
ed put in the thread 5 let it fimmer twa 
hours ; then take up and rinfe it ; then d^> 
in a liquor, ma 'e from half a pound of Log- 
wood, till you obtain the black. 



CHAP. XXX. 

To dye thread, Red and Green. 

XvED ; for one pound put four 
ounces of Alum to two gallons of water, with 
a handful of wheat bran ; after the Alum is 
defolved, lay in the thread, loofly, that the 
colour may take equally. Let the dye fim- 
mer over the fire, for ei^ht or ten hours. 
Now take up the thread; gently pre& it 
with the hands, and hang it in the fhade to 
dry. Make a new liquor; the fame quanti- 



g4 THE COUNTRY DYER'r 

fy of water, with one pound of the bell Mad- 
der. When theche is fc aiding hot, put in 
the thread, prefer ve the fame degree of heat ; 
with a fti k, frequently ftir the thread, that 
it rraj he ( quaiy coloured. Perhaps it will 
take a day to obtain ihe colour $ hut the 
time \\i i bq in pr-oporciui iQ the. ihacie de r 
firrd. 

P. S. You may put four ounces of Nut- 
galls, well pulverifcd,to the M dJer. Then 
by dipping t e ih ead in a yellow d)e, either 
before, or after it has received the Madder, 
will give you the Orange; and by having 
the dye- trr;>ng, or vveak, or by keeping the 
threaJ in the dve, a longer or {horter time, 
the dyer may obtain any (hade he choofes. 

When the thread is coloured, rinfe it 
thoroughly ; then fcald it in water with a 
quart ©f wheat bran ; rinfe again, and dry 
in the Abide which is neceffary for all colours 
on thread. 

Green. 

Firfi dye the thread blue; after it is rinfed, 
Alum ir, the fame as for red j then dip in a 



ASSISTANT. 9C 

yellow dye. This diajl be of Fuftick, Ter- 
merech, or \e!low oak bark \ this colour 
however is dull and heavy. The dyer may 
govern the (hades and make them dark, of 
light as he choofcs in thiefe two dyes. 

N. B The dyer will make it a (landing 
rule to have all his thread of flax, or cottofi, 
well cleanfed, previous to dying. That 
which is made of fhx, fliould be boiled in a 
whke lye. made of afhes and water, boiled 
together. Cotton mud be cleanfed, by a 
ftrong foar fuds. Without being well clean- 
fed, thefe r hre*ds will never receive any per- 
manent colour. 



CHAP. XXXI. 

For dying Silk. 

T 

A HE high price given for \z* 
hour, in this country, ha?, and perhips will 
for many years, prevent any extend ve culti- 
vation and manufactories of fnk. 



g6 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

Europe and Afia, being full of people, 
who muit beem[:o\eJ, on low wages, will, 
und ubtedly, manufacture* the -principle part 
of the fi.-ks, that miy be ufedin this country, 
for a es to come. 

Old g o -s with a fmall quantity, in fkeins 
of new fi k, a e he nnoft we fhall have to col- 
our at prefent. lleace it will he needlefs 
long to drtain y >u, on this branch if dying. 

Only a Tew .>rekr:ptiuns, that may be ufe- 
fuK will be given* 

Si k ftuffi may be coloured in the woollen 
dyes i by giving then the ground-work, be- f 
for ethc Vvool en cloth is put in, a: d by dark- 
ening them after the c'oth is coloured. 

Silk requires a ftrom er d e than wool. 
It is the betrer way r .o mice a dye, by icfef, 
for fi k. It fhould he drained through a 
fine fieve; for (hips barks'^ &c. *iil I e very 
injurious to ihe fi k, ef, ecia.ly to flee n% from 
which it is almoftimpoflibV to fepar \\ hem. 

-Dyes made of i npalpable powi ers nred 
not to be {trained ; they will rinfe eff in tire 
fti earns. 



ASSISTANT. p? 

Black en Silk. 

For cne pound of fiik, take four quarts 
of )ellow oak bark j toil It well for three 
hours. Tnere fhould be two gallons of 
liquor after the d e is (trained ; to this de- 
coction, add two ounces of NtKgalls well 
pounded, and four of Copperas. Let them 
boil half an hour ; then check, with a pint 
of cold water. Put in the filk, and keep the 
dye about one degree below boiling heat ; 
flir the fi.k in the d\e, for five, or fix; hours; 
that ic may equally imbibe the colour ; then 
take up, cool, rinfe and dry it fa the (hade. 
The fi k will then prefent you the colour of 
the dard olive. For the ncxC procefs, make 
a decodionof a pound of good Logwood, and 
dip the fi k until ic receives the colour \oa 
defire. The fhade the dyer may afcertain, by 
drying a corner, or a few threads, after the 
colour is received. Now rinfe, wring but 
moderately, dry in the fhade. Of whatever 
colour, filks muft never be dryed in the fun. 

After all thefe, dip, once more, in a feta- 
tion of loaf fugar, with two quaris of water. 



58 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

brought halfway to boiling heat j the** dry, 
and the filk will prefent you a (hining jet 
4>lack, whofe colour is durable. 

Cinnamon* 

For one pound of filk, boil half a pound 
of Camwood, that is ground, with two gal* 
Ions of water, for fifteen minutes, in a brafs, 
or pewter veffel, then dip, and carefully at- 
tend, that the filk may equally receive the 
colour. Continue till you obtain the col- 
our defired. Cinnamon will anfwerfor few- 
ing fcarlet cloth. After the Cinnamon is 
obtained, you may produce a number of 
ihades, by adding Copperas, in fmall quan- 
tities and dipp ng a number of times. 

Saxon blue. 

For one pound of filk, to eight quarts of 
boiling water, add about half a table-fpoon- 
ful of the compound oil and Irittigo. Stir 
them well 5 dip the fi k and keep it mcving 
for a few minutes ; take up, and if it be not 
fufficiently coloured; add a little more of the 



ASSISTANT. 9$ 

compound, an$ thus proceed till the colour 
rifes to your defign. 

Grew. 

To two gallons of boiling water, add two 
ounces of pulverifed Termerech, boil a few 
minutes, then add four ounces of Alum; af» 
ter it is defolved; add half a tablc-fpoonful of 
the compound, oil and Indigo. Mix all 
well together ; then dip for fifteen minutes ; 
take up and cool, and fo proceed till the col- 
our is obtained. If it need more yellow add 
Termerech ; if more blue encreate the pro- 
portion of the compound. 

In all colours upon filk,for one pound of 
goods two gallons of liquor arc required. But 
theo u of dyeftuff employed in colour- 

lag greens, will ever require the difcreticn of 
the dyer. By different proportions of the 
Termerech and con pound, various (hades 
may be obtained. But without Termerech,. 
no good, nor handlbme gretnean beobtai. 
ed on filk. 



*0« THE COUNTRY DYER's 

Olive brown. 

Boil Fuftick, yellow oak, or walnut bark % 
after the liquor has received the ftrcngth of 
the dyeftuff, flraln it. Bring it to boll; then 
dip the filk from time to time, adding a little 
Roman vitriol and Copperas. For a light 
colour give fhort dips. A variety of fhades 
may be obtained in this dye. 

Light browns* 

To eight quarts of water, put four ounces 
of Nutgalls well pulverifed, bcil fifteen min- 
utes and add a piece of Alum, the fize of a 
walnut, let it defolve; then dip the filk fif- 
teen minutes ; take up and cool ; add a little 
Copperas, then dip as before ; thus proceed 
untill you obtain the colour defired. 

Violet and Orange. 

For one pound of filk, put four ounces of 
Alum to eight quarts of wat^r. Let them 
almofl: boil ; then carefully dip for one hour.. 
Take up and rinle it clean. 



ASSISTANT, :*t 

Make a new dye, with one pound of Bra- 
zil, or Redwood ; boil it half a day ; after it 
is well drained from the chips, there fiiould 
be two gallons of liquor ; bring it almoft to 
boil and dip the filk. That which you de- 
fign to be light, dip but a fhort time; that 
for a full colour, will require a longer time. 
Stir the filk brifkly, while in the dye, that 
the colour may be equally received. 

Now, for violets, make a new dye, with 
half a pound of Logwood. After it is well 
boiled, ftrained and cooled, dip the filk in the 
liquor. If you dip filk in a deco&ion of 
Logwood when it is hot, or even warm, you 
can never obtain a bright colour except blacks. 
Iq thelaft place, dip the filk, in a very weak 
iolution of Pearlafh ; this liquor fhould be 
hot, as it will brighten the colour. Rinfe 
well and dry. 

Orange-, after the filk has received the 
Redwood dye, make one, with two ounces of 
pulverifed Termerech. Boil a few minutes, 
then dip the filk, longer or ihorter, accordir 
to the fhade, you wifti to produce. 

12 



ig* THE COUNTRY DYER"* 

Many other methods are ufed to obtain 
thefe colours, but the above is fufficient to 
produce all the variety of fhades that maybe 
de fired. 

Yellow. m 

Though a number of different dyeftuffs 
will produce it, we fhall mention Termerech 
only. This, however, foon fades ; but it 
gives a bright and beautiful colour, and, for 
many ufes, anfwers a good purpofe. 

Firft give to the (ilk the Alum, as for 
violets; then dip in a liquor of Termerech. 
The quantity of dyeftuff, will be in propor- 
tion to the fhades required. The dyer, by 
adding and dipping, may obtain all the va- 
riety of tints that exift betveen the draw col- 
our aad the full yellow. 

Navy Hue. 

Firft, dip an hour, one pound of (ilk, In a 

folution of four ounces of Copperaf, to two 

/gallons of water. While dipping have the 

liquor hot. ^Then rinfeand dip in a decoc* 

tion of Logwood untill the colour is obtained* 



ASSISTANT. 103 

To foflcn water that is hard, or impregnated 
with Minerals. 

Enclofe a pint of wheat brnn, in a linen 
bag tyed clofely, put it into ten or twelve 
gallons of water ; let it boil, and take off the 
fcum, as it rifes. Any water that is clean, 
may by this method be rrade fufficiently foft 
for colouring, or to wafh linen cloth. 

The hard, or rough water, which fome 
wells produce, may be rendered fofc, by ob- 
serving this prescription- 



CHAP. XXXII. 

DireRions toprefervejyejluff from injury. 

IF this be negle&ed, fome kinds, 
will loofe all their valuable qualities ; others 
will receive fo much filth and dirt, as to ren- 
der them nearly ufelefs. 

Woods, of all kinds, in the flick, fhould 
be kept in a celler, railed from the ground 
and fo covered that the din, or dufl: may not 



i04 THE- COUNTRY DYER's 

adhere. All that are ground, and put in 
cafks, fhould be preferved from the air. 

Indigo fhould be preferved in a celler, and 
fecured from dirt. Cochineal, and all other 
drugs, for dying, fiiould be confined from 
the air and from any kind of dirt or filth ; 
more efpecially, when they are pulverifcd. 
Itwillbe 3 both covenient and economical* 
for dyers, to have a number of boxes, or 
draw?, in which they may preferve fmall 
quantities of dyeftuffs and falts. 

Copperas is volatile ; of confequence, it 
ftiould be kept clofe from the air. 



m CHAP. XXXIII. 
Remarks on millings or fulling cloths* 

JMlLLING cloth is a branch 
of the clothiers bufinefs. Some inftrudtions, 
©n this branch, may be neceffary 5 fince, in 
this country, dying and dreffing of cloths are 
performed by the fame workman* 



ASSISTANT. 105 

To full cloth, the mill muft be fo con- 
ftrudted, as to keep it in the a£tion of turning. 
The mills firft conftrudled in this country, 
were deftitute of this neceffiry quality. 
The workman was obliged to (top them 
frequently, to fhift, or turn his cloth. 

Of the mills now employed, thofe with 
cranks are much preferable to any other. 
One third part of the water employed, in 
thofe which move with oval blocks, will give 
a fufficient a£lion to the erank milL How- 
ever, either will anfwer the purpofe, provid- 
ed it will turn the cloth, which is abfolutely 
neceflary. 

AU cloths defigned to be handfomely 
drefledj fhould have the nubs cut off before- 
they enter the mill. Alfo the cloth beforeL 
it is put in the mill, mud be wet, with foap- 
fuds, of fufficient ftrength, to raife, or flart 
the greafe direftly. It fhould be fo. moift,. 
that the workman, with his thumb and fin- 
ger, can wring a corner of it fo that the foap 
and greafe will rife, appear thick and dirty, 
and feel flippery, 



1*6 THE COUNTRY DYER'i 

Put in a fufficlent quantity of cloth, to 
have it turn well in the mill. Be careful to 
fhift the cloth, that is, take it out before it 
adheres, or grows together. Stretch it over 
a pin made for that ufe. As you fold the 
cloth over the pin, keep the edges and other 
parts of the cloth from doubling ; left they 
fhould become conne&ed by fulling. Then 
put it again, in the mill, and thus proceed, 
until the cloth is half milled} then fcour ity 
that the threads may clofe in the fecond mill- 
ing, to render the cioth firm. 

A weak fuds will anfwer for the fecond 
milting. The cloth will not be fo apt to 
adhere, when fo near its thicknefs. It may 
now run in the mill much longer. Howev- 
er, the workman mull attend, left it become 
thicker than he choofes, 

After the cloth is properly fulled, fcour 
it c'ean, in order for dying and drefling. 

Some nap before dying, pkich is a good 
method for lome co-ours ; but not for light 
ones ; thefe may he accidentally fpotted and 
if this be the cafe, the clothier may take 
which fide he choofes for the face* 



ASSISTANT. IC7 

Sonne clothiers full their clohs, in lie?, 
becaufe this method is cheaper than foap. 

This is a pernicious way ofdoing bufinefs ; 
rhe doth will be rcugh, brittle an dwill not 
perform half the fcrvice , 2s if fulled in foap. 
Though lie will ftart the greafe, yet every 
workman ought to be profecuted for fraud, 
tvho fulls his cloth in lies. He only faves 
to himfelfa fe<v cents, while he robs his cuG. . 
tomers of many dollars. 

Some leave grea r e in cloths, after they are 
milled; this is a pieceof infufferable deceit 
and (lovennefs. When in the cold air, fuch 
cloths will appear to be thick and firm, when 
u^arm, they will be flimfy and emit a fetid 
nafty fmell. To prefs cloth, from which 
the greafe is not thoroughly cleanfed, will 
injure the papers, which will tarnifh the col- 
our of other cloths. 

After the cloth is milled and dyed for 
dreffing, it fhould be well napped, with jicks. 
Cloths ddigned for handfome dreffing, fhould 
be plved with jacks until a fine thick nap 
rifes. Thofe for common ufc, will net re- 
quire (o much labour. 



lot THE COUNTRY DYER's 

Lamhfkins muft be napped on u oth fides, 
and not milled (o thick as for (hearing. In 
like manner baizes, as vhey are defigned to be 
both light and warm, fhouid have but a light 
[rilling md napped oa both fides. Bear- 
fkins fhouid be napped en both fides and 
fulled thick-r than common cloths, as they 
are drfigned for winter garments. 

Beaver coaung, fhouid be fulled elofely, 
napped and (Wne once even ; then it fhouid 
be tcafeled, and left with a fhort, fine nap. 
This is to be drefied, only on one fide. 

The reafon why Lamblkins, Bearlkins 
and Ba ; ze fliould be napped on both fides, is 
becaufe they will be much warmer ; befide, 
much, by this method may be faved, in cut- 
ting garments, for which they are defigned. 

N. B. Workmen fhouid be very careful 
cf cloths, whiie in the greafe and foap. In 
thefe cloths, packed and laid afide, too lorg, 
will become fo warm as to ruin them. Cloth 
thus packed, even in cold weather, will fome- 
tiires become hot in fix or ei e hr hours. 

Look to it. frequently ; for fometimes it 
is necefTary to have it in a pack, or heap, in 



/ ASSISTANT. xc9 

cold weither, and covered with dry cloths 
to prefcrve it from freezing. 

After it is fcoured clean, from the foap 
and greafe, the froft will not injure it. How- 
ever, it is the better way to dry it fo foon as 
may be coavenient $ fold up and lay it by 
till reeded. 

After cloth is well milled, d)ed and nap- 
ped, you muft tenter, or ftrain it on the 
rack, which is made for the ufe, called tent* 
er bars. The hooks in thefe bars fliould 
be fet by a line, at two inches diftance from 
each other $ fo that the edges of the cloth 
may be ftraighr, when c'r^ed, and it alfo 
v/ill drefs an i appear much better. 

Cloth fhould be drained on ihe rack, to 
take out all wrinkles and give an even width, 
when dryed. 

When the cloth i9 properly tentered, be- 
ing wet, the nap frould be laid with a jack, 
or bru(h. J^cks will anf ver Tome colours ; 
in others a ciean brufh is preferable. Jacks 
fhould be prefe'ved from rufl ; adi'ty, or 
ruftv jack will irjure any colour ; thofe that 
are light it will entirely ruin. 
K 



, H e THE COUNTRY DYER's 

-CHAP. XXXIV. 

Of /hearing Cloths. 



W: 



HEN the cloth is drawn 
$ver the (hear-board, begin at that end to- 
wards which the mp is inclined. The 
ihears ought to move lightly and freeh, to 
cut clean. 

Tnere (hould be no ridees left on the cloth 
after (hearing. Some cloihs will require nnore 
Shearing than others, to make thtm appear 
handfome. After cloths have been (home 
once, thofe dtfigned to be neatly dreffed, 
ihould be well napped with Teafels. Some 
workmen nap when the cUrh is dry ; oth- 
ers when it is wee. Either way will anfwer. 
However tonap with Teafels, when the cloth 
is dry is attended with lefs trouble If it be 
well planned after (hearing, it will leave a 
fliff nap ; that I*;, it will be fof to th - hand, 
wh^n it is drawed wiih the nap, and will 
feel rough when drawn in oppofition to it. 
When cloth is thus drefTed^ it wiU appear. 



ASSISTANT. • rtr 

«md wear handfomc. If cloth be well nap« 
ped, it will gc^rally need co be flieared five 
or fix times ; perhaps more* However, ex- 
perience is the bed inftruftor on this point. 

When cloth is well drefied, the thread will 
not be dilcovered on the face, though it be 
ihorne a number of times. 
Thofe cloths that are not napped with Te*-* 
fels, it will be fuitable after each time of 
(hearing, except the laft, to lay the nap well, 
with a jack. Cloths in this manner, may 
be drefied fo as to appear decently. After 
{hearing, plain well ; this will leave the cloth 
fleek and fmooth. 

For nice cloths, it may be well to fhear 
the back once, without napping. 

N. B. Large nubs fhould never be drawn 
out with Tweaaers, but cut off with fmall 
fhears, 



us THE COUNTRY DYER'* 



C H A P* aXXV. 

Qbj*rV4tteM M $?*$*$ fhtki* 

JL HE plate of the prefs fhould 
be two inches and an half thick. The up- 
per fide fmooth. When ready for ufe, 
fpread on it a little fine fand ; then draw 
over it the ftraightedge of aboard, to render 
it level. Next, lay on about twenty preff- 
papers, as a fence to preferve theclcth from 
the plate, while prefling. 

The place fhould be equally brought to 
fuch a heat as may gently repel water, when 
it is thrown upon it. 

The cloth being papered for prefling, is to 
be put upon the plate, and for the firft prefix- 
ing fcrewed moderately j fo that the laft 
prefling may 'take out the fcuttles, or feams 
caufed on the edge of the papers, by the 
folds. Thick cloths Ihould not be kept too 
hot in the prefs, left they be ft iff and hard. 



ASSISTANT. ngfli 

like buckram; they fhould come from the 
prefs foft and pliable. 

Cloths are fometinrses fo ftiffened by the 
heat of the prefs, as toefieuially injure them* 
By fuch a dry heat, to render cloth obftu 
nate like parchment, all muft allow, will in- 
jure it. 

Thin cloths require more heat and a clofer 
prefs. So ne ft; (fen with gums, before prefix- 
ing j others employ water, while papering 
for preffing. It is the beft way to take up 
two of the fence papers, and fprinkle the 
plare wich water ; then lay them back ; in- 
troduce the cloth and give it a clofeprefling. 
The water will find a courfe through the 
eloth. '■ 

Thin cloth fhould not be turned in the 
prefs. However, lrng pieces may require 
it. The plate fhould not be fprirck led, when 
the cloth is turned ; for that would take out 
the prcffing, which the cloth has received. 

Let thin doth lye on th^plate over nighty 
or till the prefs is cool. 

A cold prefs is vecy convenient ; after the 
cloth has lain over night in the other, it ma^ 

K~2 



ii 4 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

be fhirted to rivs ia the morning; hence the 
workman may prefs every day, if he choofe. 
When there is but one prefshe cannot fin'fb 
a pack of .c-orh, in lefsahan two days. 

After all, eapei is neceflfary and no 

pcrf hs well, until he has 

fervtu u regular apprenticefhip. 



C H A P. XXXVL 
Of/orting wool, for cloth. 

IN this country, women fort the 
wool. A fuitable attention to the bufinefs 
has been too generally i.eglc<fled. In the 
European factories of wool-en, the woikmen 
divide % the- fleece into fix or feven forts or 
parcels, from the fine, down to the coaife. 

The beft wool grows fro/n the kidney** 
over the (houlders , to the neck of the ibr-ep. 
This (hould be employed for the find! clothe 
The remainder (hould be divided for thc-ufe 
to which the forcer defignsic. 



ASSISTANT. 115 ; 

Coarfe wool fhould be wrought in to blank- 
ets. By thus affbrting wool there will be 
no wafte; but by mixirg fine and coarfe 
woci, in the fame piece, the cloth will never 
appear well afer drefTing, nor do the fervice 
it would have performed, had the wool ^een 
well forted.. 

All the coarfe ends fihouid be cut ofF and 
caft away. If they be fpun and woven in- 
to cloth, the colour you imoreftupon it will 
be neither clear nor even ; fcr coarfe and \ 
fine wool, will not equally receive iny colour; 

After wool is f Tied, it fliould be careful- . 
ly pulled apart and have all the nubs and 
motes taken out. Then put it into a Oafkef, 
or fj.r.e c'e.»n place, where no dirt or lint 
ca 1 reach it ; for ihefe are very i >us to 

wool. 

After the wool is well picked, greafe it 
with hogs-lard, or foft fat. Put ore pound . 
of greafe to {even of wool ; m ; x them well 
until the wool is foft and pliable. After it 
has received the greafe, it fhould be broken 
with good cards and laid in bats, ur til all 
the wool is broken, which is defigncd for. 



1*6 THE COUNTRY DYERV . 

one piece of cloth. Then lay the bats in a 
pile • put a board on them, and preffing on 
the board, with .he hand, or knee, gradually 
draw out the bats with the hand, until they 
are all drawn from under the board. Being 
thus feparated, by a fecond picking, the bats 
will be well nvxed. Now divide the wool 
into two equal parcels, one for the chain, or 
warp, the other for the woaf, or filling. : . 

Now let one perfon fpin the wool, that 
the yarn may be equally wrought. The fil- 
ling fhould be fpun with the wheel crofs band- 
ed. Give the warp no more twift, than will 
weave without fretting* The woaf fhould 
be twifted nearly as hard as the warp. 

After the yarn is well cleanfed, prepare it 
for the loom. The weaver fhould (ley the 
piece as high, as it will be^r to fpring freely 
in the loom. Employ as much ft ling, as can 
be conveniently introduced. Beat clofely as 
you weave. Avoid old harnefs ; becaufe it 
greatly injures the cloth; Leave a good feU 
vage and trim carefully as you weave. 

When cloth is made in conformity to thefe, 
directions, there is no danger of its working, 



ASSISTANT ny 

badly in the mill, it will not cockle; but 
drefs neatly. 

If a number of hands be employed in fpin* 
ing a piece, you may generally expeft that 
the cloth will cockle in Che mill ; and fuch 
cloth can never be dre(Ted y to appear, de- 
cently. 

Some people proceeding in this manner 
with their wool, complain of the clothier be* 
caufe their cloth does not anfwer their expect- 
ation; and after fufficient reafors have been 
given Tor the failure, as have juft been men- 
tioned, they ftil! determine to be i^noranr, 
cc in fpight of experience. " The truth lies 
here; if wool be not properly forted, and 
fuitably manufa&ured by the cards, wheel, 
and loom ; it is impofllble for the clothier 
to drefs it even decently. 

All cloths, that are not to be milled, fhould 
be weti mixed in the wool, before fpinning; 
for woo!, in confequence of the reafons be- 
fore fuggefted, will not equally receive the 
colour ; the cloth will be ftriped, if not well 
mixed in the wool. 



tit THE COUNTRY DYER's 

Families may manufa&ure their own Ker- 
fej mires neatly, by making a good choice of 
their wool. The fineft is neceffary for thofc 
cloths. The yarn ihou!d be fpun about 
eighty knots to the pound. This, and all 
Other yarn fhou d be.even. If it be unequal* 
fome places being lar t .e and others fmail, no 
cloth made of fuch yarn, will appear, even 
decently. 

Kerfeymire fhouM be fleyed with three 
threads in a reed, ard fprung with four tread- 
els, one half at a fprirg. It mull be equal- 
ly wa ) ed on both fides. 

Next, it muft be fulled lightly, and well 
dreffed. The finer the yarn* the neater the 
cloth. I have dreffed cloth, the yarn of- 
which was fpun one hundred and ten knots 
from the pound; however, we feldom have. 
wool that will admit of running lo fmall. 

It is the better way, never to draw a 
thread from wool, imaller than it. will have 
ftrength to fupport when under the a&ion of 
the loam. Wool would run finer and fmooth- 
tYj if our farmers would be more attentive to 
their ftieep. They fhould never be yarded 



ASSISTANT. 119 

with cattle ; they fhould be fed in a rack, 
fo ( onftruQed, that the feed and chaff from 
the hay may not fall into the wool. Thcfc 
■cffentially injure it. 

Sheep fliouid be kept in food flefh, that 
the wool fnav he lively. Afer the fherp are 
vvafhed the/ fhoul 1 n tbe fhor e, irejefs than 
fix or feve idays. Th^rcifon, why you fnould 
wait fo long after wafhirg,. is that the a - 
imal oil mav penetate the poers of the wool. 
This oil pre fen es the wool alive and keeps 
it feft and pliable 

After the uool is taken off, it fhould be 
laid in fore dry, clean place. When it is 
drv, (tore and preferve it from ali duft and 
filth. 

If Farmers would obferve thefc directions, 
they wou'd foon find their a count for their 
extra trouble 

Never di pofe of your beft la 1 bs ; but 
preferve them for their good wool 



*2* THE COUNTRY DYER's 

CHAP. XXXV1L 

7o know when the cloth is well drejfed. 

W HEN cloth has received a 
good dreffing, and is finifhtd in a fuitable 
manner, it will be foft and firm. Beiag 
{borne even, it will prefent you a fhort, thick 
n«p, which lies fmooth, in one re, uar direc- 
tion. By drawing your hand, with the in- 
clinations of the nap, it wili feel fleek and 
fmooth ; to move ic in oppofuion, the nap 
will feel rough and prickley. 

If the cloth will bear this infpe&ion, you 
may conclude that the workman has done 
his duty. The workmanfli'p on cloth, that 
is defigned for handfome d reding, may be 
difecvered by the eye. If it be prefled 
ft;ff, ti<t bu kram ; if the nap be irregular, 
ar.d the face of the cloth be rough, the 
workman has not perf rrncd hi* duty, bit he 
ha- endeavored to hide his failure, by the 
pref. The p^efs, on thick cloth, is of no 
importance, Cioth ftiould be fo dreffed as 



ASSISTANT. itt 

to wear, as neatly without, as with prefllng. 
The only reafon, why thick cloths are put in 
the prefs is to give a light glofs and to make 
them appear a little more compact and fin- 
iflied. 

However, if the cloth have hot been reg- 
ularly manufactured, before it is prefented 
to the clothier, it will lay beyond his power 
to drefs it neatly . Whoever will infpeCt his 
cloth, in conformity, to the foregoing direc- 
tions, may eafily know, whether the clothier 
have performed, or negleCted his duty. 

Did the people of this country, thus infpeCt 
their cloth ; unfaithful, and ignorant cloth- 
iers would not be employed $ while the well 
informed and faithful workman would be en- 
abled to do bufinefs upon a more extenfivc 
fcale than any have yet attempted in Amer- 
ica. 

If cloths were manufactured and dreffed fo 
well, as our wool will admit, gentlemen, in 
general, would prefer the productions of 
their own country, to thofe of Europe* 
L 



ftftt THE COUNTRY TUYERE 

But, greatly to our injury, cloths of this 
country too generally, have not been praper- 
ly treated in dying and dreffing. One rea- 

n is bccaufe many who pretend to'be worfc- 
3 re ; ntirely ignorant of colours, their 
ions and the phyfical qualities of 
dyeftuff i Another reafon> that may be ren- 
dered for this impoficicn, is, becaufe many 
attempt to drefs cloth before they are 
quainted with the bufinefs and of confe- 
quence never acquire a. fuitable knowledge 
of it. It would greatly promote the inter- 
eft of the nation, as well as that of individu- 
als, were no perfonto attempt the dying and 
dreffing of cloths, until he had obtained 
fuitable information, by inftru£iion and ex- 
perience. Gentlemen, of literary acquire- 
ments, who have turned their attention to 

4 

chymical analyfis, acknowledge that the art 
..of dying is as difficult as it is ufeful. 

A great proportion of the people, being 
3rant of the clothiers ar.d dyers art, have 
been fatisfied with the workmen, they em- 
ploy though their goods have fuffered 



ASSISTANT itp 

through the ignorance* or fraud of the dye: 
and clothier. 

If the goods prefenc a flafti and finical coU 
our and come ftiff, from the prefs; many peo- 
ple fuppofe that they are well dreffed. But the 
ftiffneO, which the cloth has acquired from a 
-armaadclofe prefs, is defigned, merely, 
to conceal the faults of the clothier. 

If people will only obferve, they will find,. 
on wearing foch goods, that the colour will 
foon fade ; the clo.h will become rough and 
coarfe ; whereas if the cloth had been well 
coloured and drefied, it would have worn 
fmooth, fo long as the garment would remain 
whole and decent. For general information 

it may be neceffary to point out fome further 
dire&ions, which any perfon, on viewing a 
piece of cloth, may determine, whether it be 
well coloured or not. 

Of cohurs ; fome reflect a beauriful Iuftrc 
f/om theextremeties of the nap, that israifed 
on cloths. Others prefent a beautiful body 
from the grain of the cloths but afford nfr* 

luftre. 



i2 4 THE COUNTRY DYERV 

Thofe which afford a luftfc, or refleft the 
rays oflight that incidentally fall upon them, 
are Deep blue, Black, Navy blue, Cinna,- 
mons* London browflii Clarets* Snuff browns, 
Saxon green, Bottle green, Olive grien and 
Purple. 

Thefe are full colours, and if well dyed, 
by calling the eye towards the light, level 
with the cloth, the hairs, or wool that rife up- 
on it; will appear bright and lively ; as if 
the rays oflight fnone through them. Thofc 
colours which; by this experiment, appear 
faint and languid, you may determine have 
not received their complement of dyeftuff 
and are not well coloured. 

Scarlet affords noluflre; but if well dyed, 
the body of the cloth will look glaring, bear- 
ing (lightly on the Orange. 

Crimfon prefents noluftre; but, if well 
done, it gives a beautiful body. 

Barry Red produces a luflre and glares, 
full of the Blazon. 

There are many lhades of different colours, 
which give no iuftre, yet they fhould appear 
clear aad bright. It is nsceffary that the 



ASSISTANT. 

dye ihould equally penetrate the pores of the 
wool ; then the cloth, with few exceptions as 
to colour, if * ell dreffed, will appear hand- 
fome. But if the cloth have not well receiv- 
ed the colour; if ii appear daubed, it will 
difcover the fraud, or ignorance of the dyer, 
If it be poorly drcfled, however good the col- 
our, the cloth will never afford, even a de- 
cent appearance. 

General obfer 'vations. 

You will obferve the common dire£lions, 
in this work, are given for colouring a cer- 
tain number of yards, The defign is to ac- 
comodate the dyer, who frequently wiflies to 
take cloth, direttly from the mill, before it 
is dry. 

To take our cloth, on a medium, when 
fulled, twenty yards will weigh about four- 
teen, or fifteen pounds. Thus the dyer may 
proceed, by weight, or meafure, in all thofe 
dyes where the prefcription is for twenty 
yards; but where a particular weight, qf 
goods, Is mentioned in the prefcription, fo 

fome colours, itmuft be (Iri&ly obfer ved, - 
L 2 



126 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

"Wool in the fleece, or before it is fpun 5 
and yarn that is to be co'oured, muft be 
weighed, in order to proportion the dyeftuff. 

Before we proceed to reduce dyes to fmall 
quantities; obferve that no iron vefiel may 
be employed, excepting for the black dye. 

Small dyes require a larger proportion of 
dyeftuff. They may, however, be reduced : 
to one quart and will produce as good col- 
ours as thofe .which contain fixty gallons. 

Be careful never to crowd them with goods 
fo much, but that they may freely fwim in 
the liquor. 

Thirty fix yards of full cloth, or twenty 
five pounds of goods is fufficientfor feventy 
gallons of dye. The fame proportions fhould i 
be ohferved in fqrialler quantities. 

Wool in the fleece muft be well cleanfed, 
before it is coloured. The dye muft be well 
ftrained from wood, bark and fedatnent, be- 
fore the wool is entered ; if this be negleded^ 
the wo^i willbe tangled which will greatly 
ipjure it. 

For the fame reafons yarn in the flcein 
%>u! i nevsr^c flipped until the dye is thi 



ASSISTANT. 127 

cleanfed. Yarn for dying fhouldbeput on 
fmall bows made for that purpose. Three 
or four run, may be placed on a bow or ac- 
cording to the bulk- of the yarn. Bows are r 
convenient, both to plunge the yarn and to 
keep it moving, while in the dye, which 
is ne ceffary to its equally receiving the col- 
our. 

To colour wool it will be convenient to 
enclofe it, loofely, in a net bag. Then you 
may eafily take it up from the dye, to cool, 
to pick open for dipping again. And this 
is neceflary that the, colour may be even* 
Wool v\ ill receive all colours that may be 
imprefled on cloths. The dying of wool is 
convenient for mixing colours. 

Ptefcriptions for reducing the following dyes, 
to a 'quantity , which may bs required, to ; 
colour a pound of woollen fluff. 

Navy bhc. 

One poind of goe ^w;> ounces 

©£ Copperas, fix ounces oc Logwood, sud : 
three gallons of w a:er» : 



THE COUNTRY DYER' 

Black. 

Three ounces of Copperas, one quart of 
yellow oak bark, one quart of Alder bark 
and half a pound of Logwood with three 
gallons of water. 

Cinnamon and London browns. 

One half pound of Camwood one tea- 
fpoonful of oil vitriol and two of Roman vit- 
riol, wich Copperas fufficient to darken to 
the (hade required, with three gallons of 
waier. 

Sa>\ on green. 

Twelve ounces of Fuftick, three of Alura, 
and three gallons of water; then add, in ve- 
ry fmall quantities, of the compound oil and 
Indigo, till the colour rifes to your wiffcu 

Scarlet. 

Two ounces and one quarter of an ounce 
Aqu3forti$, Gfne-fuance of Cochinealjialf an 
ounce of gradated tin, two drachms Sala- 
men2ach,one drachm Saltpetre, a :c*-fpoonfuI 



ASSISTANT. 229 

of Termerech and half a pound of wheat 
bran with three gallons of water and fix. 
drachms Cream-tartar. 

Crimfon. 

Three ounce of Alum, one ounce and one 
drachm of Cochineal, half a pound of wheat 
bran Md three gallons of water with fix 
drachms Cream-tanar. 

Purple. 

Firll make it a crimfon then dip in a good 
urine vat. 

Yellow. 

Three ounces of Alum, three gallons of 
water ; then dip in Termerech liquor till 
the fhade you defign is obtained, 

Thefe are the principle dyes, which peo- 
ple in common will, at prefenr, wilh to re- 
duce to fo fmall a quantity. You muft 
proceed with them according to the dire&ions 
given 01 the large fcale. From the forego- 
ing Recipes you find that a fmall quantity of 
dye, requires a larger proportion of dyeftuff. 



s 3 « THE COUNTRY BYER-fe 

Of thofe coloun y which will endure milling. 

Thefe areas follows, Deep blue with all 
i;s ftudes, Navy blue, black, Cinnamon, 
London brown, Snuff brown, Crimfon, Mad* 
dec red. Pink, Purple* G'aret with Redwood, 
drabs and aili. Thefe able; vations are inferr- 
ed, in order to accommodate peof^^ who 
would wifh to mix any of chefe colours, in 
the wool, for cloth that may pafs through 
the mill,. 

The method for preparing felts for trial. 

" This little manoeuvre is evry Ample*. 
" but very ufeful, as by it you will be ena- 
" bled tojudge, in a quarter of an hour, what 
" the fluff will be after it is maufa&ured, 
cl and even entirely dreffed. For this pur- 
"pofe you take wool of different colours, 
" and having accurately weighed each, the 
"mixture is made with the fingers in what 
"proportions you think proper; but the 
"whole in fuch a fmall quantity, that the 
"mixture when finiflied, is no bigger thaathe 
" fizeofypur hand. It is thenmoiftened with 



ASSISTANT. *r : 

► 

e < a little oil, and carded with fmall cards><ill 
" he colours are blended together and per« 
" fe&iy well mixed; you then take this 
" wool, which is exceedingly loofe, and in 
"the fquare(hape of the cards ; you fo 
rc ihis in four, and prefs it lightly between 
" the hands. It is then dipped in a ftrong 
" folution of foap in cold water \ ic is again 
" taken out and fqueezed hard between the 
l{ hands ac feveral times, fometimes clapping 
" it from one hand to the other. It is after- 
" wards rubbed lightly between the hands, 
" by which means it is in fo:ne degree felred. 
" Ic is again foaked in foap and water, again 
"fulled, till it has acquired a proper confift- • 
"ence refcmbling that of cloth; This Felt 
" is then a perfetf: pattern of what the cloth 
"will be when manufaftured : For if the 
"wool has been properly fpread in ihe hands 
"after carding, and carefully managed, it 
" will be as even as doth. To complete the 
" refembhnce after it has been wafhed, in 
" order to deanfe it from the fcao, it fhould 
"be -dried, nd having put i: between two 
papers, pretfed with a ho: iron. 



s S s THE COUNTRY DYER's 

The previous fuggeftions are offered, that 
workmen may fuit themfelves in mixing col- 
ours. Europeans, apprifed of our encreafing 
rnanufa&ories, attempt, to baffle eur attempts, 
by impofing onus mixed cloths, as fafhion- 
able. They are fenfible that the younger 
look, to the older nations, for the pattern of 
their garments and for the fafhionable col- 
ours of their cloths. For this reafon, Euro- 
jeans, frequently change or mix their col- 
ours to retain our adherance to their mar- 
kets. 



C HAP. XXXVIII. 

The cultivation of Teafds. 

J[ EASELS are neceETary tb 
drefs cloth neatly; without them, a good 
nap on fine cloth, cannot be handsomely 
raifed.. This plant is eafiiy cultivated. Its 
feeds refemble thofe of the Burdock, They 
ihould be fown early in the fpring, m moift f 






Assistant. 13$ 

rich ground. They fhould be placed fri 
roes, about eight inches apart. Cultivate, 
arid thin therr, when the ftock has acquired 
fix or ftven leaves. Before winter, cover 
them with brufh for their prefervation. The 
ifext fpring take up and then fe: them three 
feer apart ; keep down weeds, and hoe them 
as o r her garden plants. In the courfe of the 
ftcond feafon, feme of them will arrive to 
maturity ; the remainder fhould ftar.d for 
another feafon j then they will corr^e to their 
perfection. 

Tfcafels rife about three feet, from the 
earth and branch out in various directions. 
Each branch contain a bur about the iize of 
a hen's egg. This bur is full of little thorns, 
which turn down toward the ftock, like card 
teeth. 

After the blofnm is fallen they fhould be 
gathered fur ufe, with about eigh: ihi hes of 
the ftem. When the Teafcls are dn ed, fe- 
curfe "thepi from raft; as they would foon 
dedroy theory They produce largely I 
have taken eighty heads, or burs from one 
ftalk. To prepare them to nap cioih, con- 
M 



;34 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

fine a number of them in a band, made for 
that purpofe. This is a ftick containing 
two fnriall mortices afide each other. In thefe* 
flats are incerted ; between which the Hem 
of the Teafeis are placed. A. firing is then 
to be drawn from each end of the flats* 
through a gain cut in the end of the (haft, 
*or handle, to confine the Teafeis. A hand 
thus made will prefent you the form of a 
femicircle. 

Every clothier fhould alio be furnifhed 
'with a plane, to clear the cloth of duft and 
hairs after it is fhorne ; and to lay the nap 
*fbr prefling. 

It is made from a board, or thin plank, 
of hard wood. It fhould be eightten inches 
long and fix in breadth, a little crowning, 
on the face, with a handle, at each end, 
made fad to the plain. The face fhould 
be hacked, to retain the cement, which is 
glue laid on, one eighth of an inch thick. 
Fill this. glue with transparent glafs, gro'ely 
pounded. Sift out that which is powdered 
and take off all large pieces; that to be em- 
ployed, though of various fcrms, fhould be 



ASSISTANT, 121 

i ^arge as fmall fnot. Lay thefe on the 
glue, which is fpread, on the face of the 
plan?. The glafs faould be equally diftribuu 
cd, when the ^lue is warm ; then prefs the 
glafs down to the fjrface of the glue, being 
fpread, fo as nearly, to cover it. When the 
glue becomes cold, the glafs v. ill be fo fixed 
as to make an impreffion upon iron, and if 
the plane be well made it will laft manjr 
years, withouc renewing, 



C H A P. XXXIX. 

Of the Shear-Board . 

J[ HERE are various ways, by 
which it is conftru&ed. Some prefer aloft, 
others a hard eufhion. A medium is the 
beft. The moft convenient and durable 
Shear- Board is conftru&ed in the following 
fimple manner. Firft take a pattern from 
the leger, or under blade of the fhears, by 
glacing a thin board parallel with it, and 



3j6 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

then marking the be$d of the leger on the 
board ; after this cut out the board, exaflly^ 
to the line. By this pattern fix four or five 
pieces of flitwork fo long as you defign, for 
the width of your board. Then take clear 
white pine boards 5 after joiating them plane 
one fide and wet it with water ; then lay the 
rough fide to the fire, which will warp it. 
When the board is iufficiently fprung, nail 
it to the pieces of fljtwork ;, a pitce fhould 
be placed to each end, and the others at e- 
qual difisnces between them. After the 
boards are thus nailed, joint them, exactly, 
to the pattern. This being done, cover the 
Shear-Board, with a bat, or chufhion made 
of wool. Take the length.and width of the 
furface, on which, you intend the (hears to 
inove. Employ a hatter to bow the wool 
for the cufhion, that it may be even. If it 
be three fourths of an inch thick, it will an- 
fwer. it fhould be dry when matted togeth- 
er; after this put it on the board and draw 
your covering clofely over it. Leather is 
the beft covering $ ic will lad mud longer 



ASSISTANT, 137 

thin cloth and preferve your goods, from 
linr, while (hearing, 

A Shear-Board made according to thefe di- 
rections will admit the le ger of the (hears e- 
quaily to the cloth ; and they will cut from 
heel topoinc without any trouble ; while oth- 
er boards are frequently out of order and 
caufe the cloch to be (beared unequally. 

For this improvement of the Shear-Board, 
I am indeed to the ingenuity of Mr. Na- 
than' Smith, a gentleman, who is diftin- 
guilhed by his improvements of mechanic 
arts. 



CHAP. XL. 

Further remarks ondyejluff. 

X* OR a great proportion cf the 
ingredients employed in dves, we depend oa 
Europe tofurnifli. With Europeans, it is an 
important object, to bring us their fa&ories, 
(ot all the cloathing we need. As we at- 



i 3 8 THE COUNTRY DYER's 

tempt an Independence of their markets, they 
increafetbeir'duties on dyeftuffs which we im- 
port. Not one cafk, of Cochineal, can we ob- 
tain from our filler continent, South- America ;.. 
from thence it mutt pop through the hands 
of Spain and England, From England we 
leceive it, at an extravagant price. The 
dye woods, which abound in their IQands we 
cannot obtain without paying heavy duties. 
Foreign nations receive, a large revenue from 
this country, for the dyeftuffs we, import* 
Does it become an independent nation, to 
be thus dependent on others, for articles^ 
which, perhaps, may abound in our own 
country ? Or fhall we, without enquiry, 
conclude that nature has denied us thefe ar- 
ticles ^ being partial in' the diftribution of 
her favours ? The Indigo weed is a native of 
this country ; and for many 5 ears .has been 
the only article for dyes that has been export- 
ed, towards baliancing the imports of other 
dye fluff. Of late, the fhrub Sumach em- 
ployed, to lay the ground, in paper-flaining, 

has been ground in mills, coaftru&ed for that 
> 

purpofr, put in cafks -and fent to Europe, 
This affords a handfome profit. 



ASSISTANT. 139- 

We have various plants, weeds and roots, 
which produce a yellow. Among thefe arc 
the root of the upland Dock the herb Peters- 
wort ; but in a particlur manner the Aff- 
mart gives a yellow that is beautiful^ If fer- 
mented, before it is employed in dying, it 
will tmprefs a permanent colour. The Woad^ 
of Europe ufed in dyes is prepared by a che- 
mlcial pro efs, and produces a large revenue; 
undoubtedly theAffinart which, in the -north- 
ern flares is troublefome to farmers, might, 
become profitable to them and our country 
were it fuitably prepared for a dyeftuff. Its- 
extra £t is highly charged with acids andveg*- 
itable falls. 

If our government fhould confidcfr it wor- 
thy their attention, to encourage fome able 1 * 
chenrft to explore the qualities of our fofiils, 
woods, barks, flirubs, plants, roots, weeds 
and minerals, perhaps, the advantages, our* 
rifing nation might derive, would foon in- 
demnify us for the extra expenfe. 

THE EN©v 



THE IN D E X 



CHAP. PAGE. , 

i OF vejcls and uttwfils employed in 

dying. 9, 

& Remarks on dyejiuffs. . . . . . 24 

3 Recipe for the blue dye, or Indigo vat. 25 

4 For Navy blue • 35 

5 For Raven black, or Crow colour* . 37- 

— For black 9 38 

6 For li^ht and dark cinnamon, Lon- 

don brown, and Britijh mud. . 40 

7 For Saxon green. 43 ; 

<— Bott'e green. . . • . . . . 45 > 

% For Saxon blue. ..... . 46 

9 For Snuff brown. • . . . ' • 47 

10 For Scarlet. . . . . . . , 49 

— Barry red and Orange. . . . # 53 , 

11 For Crimjon. . . . . • . . 54 

12 For Madder red. • . • . . . 56 > 

13 For Pink colour. ,*>.■* ^ 57 



I N D E X, 

14 For purple • 59 

15 Claret from Redwood. * • . . 61 

16 Buffi or cream colour. e . . . 63 

17 Afh colour > with N»tgal$, . • . 64 

— Slate colour 66 

18 For For eft drah ibid, 

19 For Sage* green 68 

20 Pearl colour. ....... 69 

21 For dark drab brown 71 

22 0/^£ green 72 

— «SVtf green and Fawn eclair. . . 73 

23 Ttllow 74 

24 0//w brown 76 

— Obfervations - . . 77 

25 Of whitening woolen clctb. . . . 78. 

26 On. mixing colours three by three. . 79 

27 For dying and dreffing Fvflian> cotton 

and li'.en. t 81 

— Dark : ivc g^een on linen and cotton. 84 

28 Blue dy for linen and cot: on. . . 85, 

— The fcond procefs for blue on linen 

and cotton 88 

— Third procefs for blue, on cottBn and 

linen, with Logwood. ... . # 90 



¥ 

1K.DE X. 

2(j To dye thread purple, olive brown and 

black. * . ..... 92 

3$ To dye threap rtd and green. . . 93 

31 For dying filk. ♦ 95 

— To /oft in Water thai is hard or int- 

• pregnated with Minerals, ; 103 

32 Directions to.preferve dy-Jl ff. . ; il id. 

33 Rtmarks on milling or fulling cloths ■ . 1 04 

34 Of /hearing clo<hs. 110 

35 Ob [ fi rvations on pr effing e'eth. . .112 

36 Ofjartirig wool, for chth. . . v . 114 

37 To know when cloth is well (forjfid. aCO 
-r- General obfervations. . . • . .125. 
&$ Pr'fcripticns for reducing iyts. ♦ 1*7 

— Of ihofe calours } which will endure 

milling. . • ... . .130. 
— * The method of preparing fits [or trial, ibid 
? 38 Cultivation ofT<afds. . . . .132 

39 Of the Shear-Board. . . . . 135 

40 Further remarks on dytftxjf. . . 137 



ERRATA, 

PAGE 17 linetenth for ua-ot read tmve. V?gt 
. 3 line iix een'h, for engradients read ingredients* 
Poge 1 .8 line tucntythrcc for loam read kern. — - 
Alio Page 103 the fifth line from theboUominfcrt/pr 
after aniwer, 



7 






\